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Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2008)

Srodowisko - obecne problemy - wybierz rok:
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2001) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2002) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2003) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2004) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2005) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2006) (porownaj)
- Srodowisko - obecne problemy (2007) (porownaj)


Informacje o Srodowisko - obecne problemy w 2008 rok

AfganistanAfganistan limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down dla fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution
AkrotiriAkrotiri shooting around the salt lake; note - breeding place dla loggerhead and green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on the base
AlbaniaAlbania deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
AlgieriaAlgieria soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, w particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds w the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines
AndoraAndora deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
AngolaAngola overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, w response to both international demand dla tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting w loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
AnguillaAnguilla supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
AntarktydaAntarktyda in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers w 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled Antarctic marine plants; w 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated w response to regional warming
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Ocean ArktycznyOcean Arktyczny endangered marine species include walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack
ArgentynaArgentyna environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution


note: Argentyna is a world leader w setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
ArmeniaArmenia soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged dla firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source dla hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant w spite of its location w a seismically active zone
ArubaAruba NA
Wyspy Ashmore i CartieraWyspy Ashmore i Cartiera NA
Ocean AtlantyckiOcean Atlantycki endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazylia, and eastern Argentyna; oil pollution w Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Meksyk, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution w Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
AustraliaAustralia soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing dla agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef w the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
AustriaAustria some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area w the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used w the production of cotton
BahamyBahamy coral reef decay; solid waste disposal
BahrajnBahrajn desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources dla all water needs
Wyspa BakerWyspa Baker no natural fresh water resources
BangladeszBangladesz many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent w surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables w the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
BarbadosBarbados pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
BialorusBialorus soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated z fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' w northern Ukraina
BelgiaBelgia the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation network, industry, extensive animal breeding and crop cultivation; air and water pollution also have repercussions dla neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now resolved) have slowed progress w tackling environmental challenges
BelizeBelize deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid and sewage waste disposal
BeninBenin inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
BermudyBermudy sustainable development
BhutanBhutan soil erosion; limited access to potable water
BoliwiaBoliwia the clearing of land dla agricultural purposes and the international demand dla tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used dla drinking and irrigation
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites dla disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
BotswanaBotswana overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Wyspa BouvetaWyspa Bouveta NA
BrazyliaBrazylia deforestation w Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution w Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Brytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu IndyjskiegoBrytyjskie Terytorium Oceanu Indyjskiego NA
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze limited natural fresh water resources (except dla a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchments)
BruneiBrunei seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires w Indonezja
BulgariaBulgaria air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
BirmaBirma deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
BurundiBurundi soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees dla fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
KambodzaKambodza illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining dla gems w the western region along the border z Tajlandia have resulted w habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; w rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
KamerunKamerun waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
KanadaKanada air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka soil erosion; deforestation due to demand dla wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
KajmanyKajmany no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchments
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished the country's reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation
CzadCzad inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal w rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
ChileChile widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
ChinyChiny air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia loss of rainforest; impact of phosphate mining
ClippertonClipperton NA
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations w natural underground reservoirs
KolumbiaKolumbia deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially w Bogota, from vehicle emissions
KomoryKomory soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible dla significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used w creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka NA
Wyspy Morza KoralowegoWyspy Morza Koralowego no permanent fresh water resources
KostarykaKostaryka deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land dla cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest w West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
ChorwacjaChorwacja air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
KubaKuba air and water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
CyprCypr water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity w rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination w the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
CzechyCzechy air and water pollution w areas of northwest Bohemia and w northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
DaniaDania air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides
DhekeliaDhekelia netting and trapping of small migrant songbirds w the spring and autumn
DzibutiDzibuti inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
DominikaDominika NA
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
EkwadorEkwador deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes w ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
EgiptEgipt agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth w population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
SalwadorSalwador deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa tap water is not potable; deforestation
ErytreaErytrea deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
EstoniaEstonia air polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than w 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies w 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; w connection z the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted w certain locations
EtiopiaEtiopia deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages w some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Unia EuropejskaUnia Europejska NA
FalklandyFalklandy overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands w 2001 dla commercial reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd w the world unaffected by the 1986 Chornobyl disaster
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze NA
FidziFidzi deforestation; soil erosion
FinlandiaFinlandia air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
FrancjaFrancja some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska NA
Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i AntarktyczneFrancuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne introduction of foreign species on Iles Crozet has caused severe damage to the original ecosystem; overfishing of Patagonian Toothfish around Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen
GabonGabon deforestation; poaching
GambiaGambia deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
GazaGaza desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; depletion and contamination of underground water resources
GeorgiaGeorgia air pollution, particularly w Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
NiemcyNiemcy emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution w the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers w eastern Niemcy; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism dla ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas w line z the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
GhanaGhana recurrent drought w north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
GibraltarGibraltar limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used dla drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
GrecjaGrecja air pollution; water pollution
GrenlandiaGrenlandia protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
GrenadaGrenada NA
GuamGuam extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake, an exotic, invasive species
GwatemalaGwatemala deforestation w the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
GuernseyGuernsey NA
GwineaGwinea deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation w forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
GujanaGujana water pollution from sewage and agricultural and industrial chemicals; deforestation
HaitiHaiti extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared dla agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Wyspy Heard i McDonaldaWyspy Heard i McDonalda NA
WatykanWatykan NA
HondurasHonduras urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land dla agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, z heavy metals
Hong KongHong Kong air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
HowlandHowland no natural fresh water resources
WegryWegry the upgrading of Wegry's standards w waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
IslandiaIslandia water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment
IndieIndie deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Ocean IndyjskiOcean Indyjski endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution w the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
IndonezjaIndonezja deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution w urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
IranIran air pollution, especially w urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution w the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization
IrakIrak government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
IrlandiaIrlandia water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff
Wyspa ManWyspa Man waste disposal (both household and industrial); transboundary air pollution
IzraelIzrael limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
WlochyWlochy air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
JamajkaJamajka heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution w Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Jan majenJan majen NA
JaponiaJaponia air pollution from power plant emissions results w acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life; Japonia is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber, contributing to the depletion of these resources w Asia and elsewhere
JarvisJarvis no natural fresh water resources
JerseyJersey NA
JohnstonJohnston no natural fresh water resources
JordaniaJordania limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
KazachstanKazachstan radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated z former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks dla humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe w some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted dla irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution w the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
KeniaKenia water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation w Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
KingmanKingman none
KiribatiKiribati heavy pollution w lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed z traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; waterborne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea air pollution w large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents; drift net fishing
KuwejtKuwejt limited natural fresh water resources; some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water; air and water pollution; desertification
KirgistanKirgistan water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
LaosLaos unexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil erosion; most of the population does not have access to potable water
LotwaLotwa Lotwa's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household, and hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution; w 2001, Lotwa closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
LibanLiban deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
LesothoLesotho population pressure forcing settlement w marginal areas results w overgrazing, severe soil erosion, and soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, and redirects water to Republika Poludniowej Afryki
LiberiaLiberia tropical rain forest deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewage
LibiaLibia desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme w the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein NA
LitwaLitwa contamination of soil and groundwater z petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
LuksemburgLuksemburg air and water pollution w urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
MakauMakau NA
MacedoniaMacedonia air pollution from metallurgical plants
MadagaskarMadagaskar soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated z raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
MalawiMalawi deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
MalezjaMalezja air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonezjan forest fires
MalediwyMalediwy depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise; coral reef bleaching
MaliMali deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
MaltaMalta very limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste and discharges from fishing vessels
MauretaniaMauretania overgrazing, deforestation, and soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Senegal, which is the only perennial river; locust infestation
MauritiusMauritius water pollution, degradation of coral reefs
MajottaMajotta NA
MeksykMeksyk scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted w north, inaccessible and poor quality w center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers w urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution w the national capital and urban centers along US-Meksyk border; land subsidence w Valley of Meksyk caused by groundwater depletion


note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
Mikronezja, Sfederowane Stany MikronezjiMikronezja, Sfederowane Stany Mikronezji overfishing, climate change, pollution
MidwayMidway NA
MoldawiaMoldawia heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
MonakoMonako NA
MongoliaMongolia limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
CzarnogoraCzarnogora pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially w tourist-related areas such as Kotor
MontserratMontserrat land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared dla cultivation
MarokoMaroko land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
MozambikMozambik a long civil war and recurrent drought w the hinterlands have resulted w increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas z adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching dla ivory is a problem
NamibiaNamibia very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
NauruNauru limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate mining during the past 90 years - mainly by a UK, Australia, and NZ consortium - has left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland and threatens limited remaining land resources
NavassaNavassa NA
NepalNepal deforestation (overuse of wood dla fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
HolandiaHolandia water pollution w the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie NA
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia erosion caused by mining exploitation and forest fires
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
NikaraguaNikaragua deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
NigerNiger overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
NigeriaNigeria soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
NiueNiue increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk NA
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne contamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts z development
NorwegiaNorwegia water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
OmanOman rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Ocean SpokojnyOcean Spokojny endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution w Philippine Sea and South Chiny Sea
PakistanPakistan water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
PalauPalau inadequate facilities dla disposal of solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand and coral dredging, illegal fishing practices, and overfishing
PalmyraPalmyra NA
PanamaPanama water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution w urban areas; mining threatens natural resources
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand dla tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Wyspy ParacelskieWyspy Paracelskie NA
ParagwajParagwaj deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means dla waste disposal pose health risks dla many urban residents; loss of wetlands
PeruPeru deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
FilipinyFilipiny uncontrolled deforestation especially w watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution w major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
PitcairnPitcairn deforestation (only a small portion of the original forest remains because of burning and clearing dla settlement)
PolskaPolska situation has improved since 1989 due to decline w heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
PortugaliaPortugalia soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially w coastal areas
PortorykoPortoryko erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
KatarKatar limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
RumuniaRumunia soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution w south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
RosjaRosja air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation w major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
RuandaRuanda deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees dla fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Saint-BarthelemySaint-Barthelemy with no natural rivers or streams, fresh water is w short supply, especially w summer, and provided by desalinization of sea water, collection of rain water, or imported via water tanker
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena NA
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis NA
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia deforestation; soil erosion, particularly w the northern region
Saint MartinSaint Martin fresh water supply is dependent on desalinization of sea water
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon recent test drilling dla oil w waters around Saint-Pierre i Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny pollution of coastal waters and shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts and other effluents; w some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive
SamoaSamoa soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
San MarinoSan Marino NA
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca deforestation; soil erosion and exhaustion
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
SenegalSenegal wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
SerbiaSerbia air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
SeszeleSeszele water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted w deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleted natural resources; overfishing
SingapurSingapur industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires w Indonezja
SlowacjaSlowacja air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
SloweniaSlowenia Sava River polluted z domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters z heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona deforestation; soil erosion; many of the surrounding coral reefs are dead or dying
SomaliaSomalia famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth w water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting w acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich PoludniowyGeorgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy NA
Ocean PoludniowyOcean Poludniowy increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole w recent years, reducing marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% and damaging the DNA of some fish; illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing w recent years, especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery, which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line fishing dla toothfish


note: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong comeback after severe overexploitation w the 18th and 19th centuries
HiszpaniaHiszpania pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Wyspy SpratlyWyspy Spratly NA
Sri LankaSri Lanka deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution w Colombo
SudanSudan inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
SurinamSurinam deforestation as timber is cut dla export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities
SvalbardSvalbard NA
SuaziSuazi limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
SzwecjaSzwecja acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria air pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity
SyriaSyria deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water
TajwanTajwan air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade w endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
TadzykistanTadzykistan inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
TanzaniaTanzania soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially dla ivory
TajlandiaTajlandia air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
TogoTogo deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood dla fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing w urban areas
TokelauTokelau limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to Nowa Zelandia
TongaTonga deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared dla agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
TunezjaTunezja toxic and hazardous waste disposal is ineffective and poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
TurcjaTurcja water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly w urban areas; deforestation; concern dla oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan contamination of soil and groundwater z agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos limited natural fresh water resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
TuvaluTuvalu since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment systems z storage facilities (the Japoniaese Government has built one desalination plant and plans to build one other); beachhead erosion because of the use of sand dla building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth dla use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is concerned about global increases w greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water table; w 2000, the government appealed to Australia and Nowa Zelandia to take w Tuvaluans if rising sea levels should make evacuation necessary
UgandaUganda draining of wetlands dla agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation w Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
UkrainaUkraina inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination w the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie lack of natural freshwater resources compensated by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from oil spills
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut w emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of w landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone air pollution resulting w acid rain w both the US and Kanada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources w much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Stany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesStany Zjednoczone Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges Baker, Howland, and Jarviss, and Johnston: no natural fresh water resources


Kingman: none


Midway and Palmyra: NA
UrugwajUrugwaj water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
UzbekistanUzbekistan shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting w growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
VanuatuVanuatu a majority of the population does not have access to a reliable supply of potable water; deforestation
WenezuelaWenezuela sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
WietnamWietnam logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment w Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze lack of natural freshwater resources
WakeWake NA
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna deforestation (only small portions of the original forests remain) largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source; as a consequence of cutting down the forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion; there are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural fresh water resources
Zachodni BrzegZachodni Brzeg adequacy of fresh water supply; sewage treatment
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia sparse water and lack of arable land
SwiatSwiat large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion; global warming becoming a greater concern
JemenJemen very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
ZambiaZambia air pollution and resulting acid rain w the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
ZimbabweZimbabwe deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species w the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
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