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Serbia (2008)

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Serbia 2008 roku

 Serbia
Podzial administracyjny 161 municipalities (opcstine, singular - opcstina)


Serbia Proper: Beograd: Barajevo, Cukavica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladnovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zrezdara; Borski Okrug: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevski Okrug: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Jablanicki Okrug: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medvedja, Vlasotince; Kolubarski Okrug: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macvanski Okrug: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravicki Okrug: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisavski Okrug: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinjski Okrug: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirotski Okrug: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavski Okrug: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravski Okrug: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rckovac, Svilajnac; Rasinski Okrug: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raski Okrug: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadijski Okrug: Arandjelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplicki Okrug: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitoradja; Zajecarski Okrug: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zalecar; Zlatiborski Okrug: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice;


Vojvodina Autonomous Province: Juzno-Backi Okrug: Backi Petrovac, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Temerin, Titel, Zabalj; Juzno Banatski Okrug: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; Severno-Backi Okrug: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; Severno-Banatski Okrug: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Srednje-Banatski Okrug: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Sremski Okrug: Indjija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; Zapadno-Backi Okrug: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor;
Rolinictwo wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, beef, pork, milk
Lotniska 39 (note - includes Kosowo) (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 16


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 23


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Terytorium total: 77,474 sq km


land: 77,474 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than South Carolina
Tlo historyczne The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed w 1918; its name was changed to Jugoslawia w 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Niemcy's occupation and division of Jugoslawia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip TITO (Partisans) took full control of Jugoslawia when German and Chorwacjan separatist forces were defeated w 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died w 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West dla the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Serbian Republic and his ultranationalist calls dla Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Jugoslawia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Chorwacja, Slowenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia w 1992. The remaining republics of Federalna Republika Jugoslawii declared a new Federal Republic of Jugoslawia (FRY) w kwiecien 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs w neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Jugoslawia being ousted from the UN w 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords w 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY w 1997. In 1998, a small-scale ethnic Albanian insurgency w the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosowo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted w massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living w Kosowo by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia w the spring of 1999 and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosowo w czerwiec 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 w czerwiec 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) w Kosowo to provide a safe and secure environment dla the region's ethnic communities, created a UN interim Administration Mission w Kosowo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosowo's final status dla an unspecified date w the future. In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a constitutional framework that allowed Kosowo to establish institutions of self-government and led to Kosowo's first parliamentary election. FRY elections w wrzesien 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. A broad coalition of democratic reformist parties known as DOS (the Democratic Opposition of Serbia) was subsequently elected to parliament w grudzien 2000 and took control of the government. The arrest of MILOSEVIC by DOS w 2001 allowed dla his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal dla the Former Jugoslawia w The Hague to be tried dla crimes against humanity. (MILOSEVIC died at The Hague w marzec 2006 before the completion of his trial.) In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations. In 2003, the FRY became Federalna Republika Jugoslawii, a loose federation of the two republics z a federal level parliament. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs w Kosowo w marzec 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosowo w styczen 2006. In maj 2006, Czarnogora invoked its right under the Konstytucjaal Charter of Federalna Republika Jugoslawii to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The referendum was successful, and Czarnogora declared itself an independent nation on 3 czerwiec 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Federalna Republika Jugoslawii. In pazdziernik 2006, the Serbian parliament unanimously approved - and a referendum confirmed - a new constitution dla the country.
Budzet revenues: $17.34 billion


expenditures: $17.54 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Belgrade


geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers z well distributed rainfall); w other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters z heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja adopted 8 listopad 2006; effective 10 listopad 2006
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Serbia


conventional short form: Serbia


local long form: Republika Srbija


local short form: Srbija


former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $28.24 billion (includes Czarnogora) (2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron MUNTER


embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade


mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070


telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344


FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230


note: there is a branch office w Pristina at 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Prstina, Kososvo; telephone: [381] (38) 5959-3000; FAX:[381] (38) 549-890
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC


chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333


FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933


consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Serbia z several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosowo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state w luty 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosowo's northern border challenge final status of Kosowo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosowo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority w Kosowo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary z Bosnia i Hercegowina, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $2 billion pledged w 2001 to Federalna Republika Jugoslawii (disbursements to follow over several years; aid pledged by EU and US has been placed on hold because of lack of cooperation by Serbia w handing over General Ratko MLADIC to the criminal court w The Hague)
Ekonomia MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Jugoslawia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes w 1999 left the economy only half the size it was w 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC w pazdziernik 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership w the IMF w grudzien 2000, a down-sized Jugoslawia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the Swiat Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank dla Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A Swiat Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held w czerwiec 2001 raised $1.3 billion dla economic restructuring. In listopad 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reschedule the country's $4.5 billion public debt and wrote off 66% of the debt. In lipiec 2004, the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt just over half the total owed. Belgrade has made only minimal progress w restructuring and privatizing its holdings w major sectors of the economy, including energy and telecommunications. It has made halting progress towards EU membership and is currently pursuing a Stabilization and Association Agreement z Brussels. Serbia is also pursuing membership w the Swiat Trade Organization. Unemployment remains an ongoing political and economic problem.


note: economic data dla Serbia currently reflects information dla the former Federalna Republika Jugoslawii, including Kosowo, unless otherwise noted; data dla Serbia alone will be added when available
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja NA
Elektrycznosc - eksport 12.05 billion kWh (excludes Kosowo; exported to Czarnogora) (2004)
Elektrycznosc - import 11.23 billion kWh (excludes Kosowo; imports from Czarnogora) (2004)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 33.87 billion kWh (excludes Kosowo and Czarnogora) (2004)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: NA


highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty Serbian dinars per US dollar - 54.5 (2007), 59.98 (2006)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 lipiec 2004);


head of government: Prime Minister Vojislav KOSTUNICA (since 3 marzec 2004);


cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet;


elections: president elected by direct vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 luty 2008 (next to be held w 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly


election results: Boris TADIC elected president w the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
Eksport 12.05 billion kWh (excludes Kosowo; exported to Czarnogora) (2004)
Eksport $3.49 billion (excludes Kosowo and Czarnogora) (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport NA bbl/day
Eksport - towary manufactured goods, food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment
Opis flagi three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white; charged z the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.3%


industry: 24.2%


services: 63.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.9% dla Serbia alone (excludes Kosowo) (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 44 00 N, 21 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turcja and the Near East
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering
Import 11.23 billion kWh (excludes Kosowo; imports from Czarnogora) (2004)
Import $10.58 billion (excludes Kosowo and Czarnogora) (2005 est.)
Import 2.1 billion cu m


note: includes Czarnogora (2004 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Niepodleglosc 5 czerwiec 2006 (from Federalna Republika Jugoslawii)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.4% (2006 est.)
Przemysl sugar, agricultural machinery, electrical and communication equipment, paper and pulp, lead, transportation equipment
Inflacja 8.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD (suspended), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny NA
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
Sila robocza 2.961 million dla Serbia (includes Kosowo) (2002 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 30%


industry: 46%


services: 24%


note: excludes Kosowo and Czarnogora (2002)
Granica total: 2,026.3 km


border countries: Bosnia i Hercegowina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Chorwacja 241 km, Wegry 151 km, Kosowo 351.6 km, Macedonia 62.3 km, Czarnogora 124.4 km, Rumunia 476 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: NA


permanent crops: NA


other: NA
Jezyki Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)


note: Rumunian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Chorwacjan all official w Vojvodina
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held on 21 styczen 2007 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: Serbia National Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SRS 81, DS 64, DSS-NS 47, G17 Plus 19, SPS 16, LDP Coalition 15, SVM 3, KZS 2, URS 1, KAPD 1, RP 1
Zywotnosc total population: 75.06 years


male: 72.49 years


female: 77.86 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 96.4%


male: 98.9%


female: 94.1% (2003 census)


note: includes Czarnogora
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Wegry
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Serbian naval force, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Joint Operations Command, Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2007)
Swieto narodowe National Day, 15 luty
Narodowosc noun: Serb(s)


adjective: Serbian
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes
Surowce naturalne oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Rurociagi gas 1,921 km; oil 393 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Coalition dla Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement dla Democratic Progress of LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]
Ludnosc 10,150,265 (lipiec 2007 est.)


note: all population data includes Kosowo
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 30%


note: data covers the former Federalna Republika Jugoslawii (1999 est.)
Stacje radiowe 153 (station types NA) (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,379 km (note - excludes Kosowo)


standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,254 km) (2006)
Religie Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized w 2005


domestic: teledensity remains below the average dla neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through multiple providers z national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers


international: country code - 381
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.719 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 6.644 million (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 18.8% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2005)
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