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Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2003)

Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow - wybierz rok:
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2001) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2002) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2004) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2005) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2006) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2007) (porownaj)
- Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow (2008) (porownaj)


Informacje o Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow w 2003 rok

AfganistanAfganistan NA; note - ministries formed under the Transitional Islamic State of Afganistan (TISA) include former influential Afghans, diaspora members, and former political leaders
AlbaniaAlbania Omonia [Vangjel DULES]
AlgieriaAlgieria NA
Samoa AmerykanskieSamoa Amerykanskie NA
AndoraAndora NA
AngolaAngola Front dla the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]


note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle dla the independence of Cabinda Province
AnguillaAnguilla NA
Antigua i BarbudaAntigua i Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
ArgentynaArgentyna Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic Church; students
ArmeniaArmenia Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
ArubaAruba NA
AustraliaAustralia Australian Monarchist League [leader NA]; Australian Republican Movement [leader NA]
AustriaAustria Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
AzerbejdzanAzerbejdzan Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbejdzani Forces (UPAF)
BahamyBahamy NA
BahrajnBahrajn Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically w 1994-97, demanding the return of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
BangladeszBangladesz NA
BarbadosBarbados Barbados Workers Union [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMMISSIONG]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]
BialorusBialorus NA
BelgiaBelgia Christian and Socialist Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Przemysl; numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups representing immigrants
BelizeBelize Society dla the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Adele CATZIM]
BeninBenin NA
BermudyBermudy Bermudy Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermudy Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermudy Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermudy Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
BhutanBhutan Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indien merchant community; United Front dla Democracy (exiled)
BoliwiaBoliwia Cocalero Groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Boliwia or CSUTCB [Felipe QUISPE]
Bosnia i HercegowinaBosnia i Hercegowina NA
BotswanaBotswana NA
BrazyliaBrazylia left wing of the Catholic Church; Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party
Brytyjskie Wyspy DziewiczeBrytyjskie Wyspy Dziewicze NA
BruneiBrunei NA
BulgariaBulgaria agrarian movement; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups z various agendas
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement dla Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 luty; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country w both organizations and communities
BirmaBirma All Birma Student Democratic Front or ABSDF; Kachin Niepodleglosc Army or KIA; Karen National Union or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Birma or NCGUB [Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime (the group fled to a border area and joined z insurgents w grudzien 1990 to form a parallel government); several Shan factions; United Wa State Army or UWSA
BurundiBurundi loosely organized Hutu and Tutsi militias, often affiliated z Hutu and Tutsi extremist parties or subordinate to government security forces
KambodzaKambodza NA
KamerunKamerun Southern Kamerun National Council [Frederick Ebong ALOBWEDE]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
KanadaKanada NA
Republika Zielonego PrzyladkaRepublika Zielonego Przyladka NA
KajmanyKajmany NA
Cesarstwo SrodkowoafrykanskieCesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie NA
CzadCzad NA
ChileChile revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
ChinyChiny no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong sect and the Chiny Democracy Party as potential rivals
Wyspa Bozego NarodzeniaWyspa Bozego Narodzenia none
Wyspy KokosoweWyspy Kokosowe none
KolumbiaKolumbia two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Kolumbia or AUC
KomoryKomory NA
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna NA
Kongo, RepublikaKongo, Republika Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Wyspy CookaWyspy Cooka NA
KostarykaKostaryka Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Kostarykan Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association dla Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert Brown]
Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire NA
ChorwacjaChorwacja NA
KubaKuba NA
CyprCypr Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
CzechyCzechy Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions [Richard FALBR]
DaniaDania NA
DzibutiDzibuti Union dla Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union dla Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]
DominikaDominika Dominika Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Republika DominikanskaRepublika Dominikanska Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Timor WschodniTimor Wschodni NA
EkwadorEkwador Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ekwador or CONAIE [Leonidas IZA, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ekwador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]; Popular Front or FP [Luis VILLACIS]
EgiptEgipt despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood dla his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained w practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
SalwadorSalwador labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of Salwador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of Salwador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Gwinea RównikowaGwinea Równikowa NA
ErytreaErytrea Erytrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ [leader NA] (also including Erytrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement) [leader NA]); Erytrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement) [leader NA]; Erytrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Erytrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Erytrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
EstoniaEstonia NA
EtiopiaEtiopia Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union Front or ARDUF [leader NA]; Council of Alternative Forces dla Peace and Democracy w Etiopia or CAFPDE [BEYANE Petros]; Southern Etiopia People's Democratic Coalition or SEPDC [BEYANE Petros]
FalklandyFalklandy none
Wyspy OwczeWyspy Owcze NA
FidziFidzi NA
FrancjaFrancja historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 865,000 members (claimed, of which 810,000 are actively employed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de Francja) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)
Gujana FrancuskaGujana Francuska NA
Polinezja FrancuskaPolinezja Francuska NA
GabonGabon NA
GambiaGambia NA
GeorgiaGeorgia Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government w exile; separatists w the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA
NiemcyNiemcy employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
GhanaGhana NA
GibraltarGibraltar Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
GrecjaGrecja NA
GrenlandiaGrenlandia NA
GrenadaGrenada NA
GwadelupaGwadelupa Christian Movement dla the Liberation of Gwadelupa or KLPG; General Federation of Gwadelupa Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Gwadelupa Workers or UGTG; Movement dla Independent Gwadelupa or MPGI
GuamGuam NA
GwatemalaGwatemala Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee dla Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
GuernseyGuernsey none
GwineaGwinea NA
Gwinea BissauGwinea Bissau NA
GujanaGujana Civil Liberties Action Committee or CLAC; Gujana Council of Indien Organizations or GCIO; Trades Union Congress or TUC


note: the GCIO and the CLAC are small and active but not well organized
HaitiHaiti Autonomous Haitian Workers or CATH; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church
WatykanWatykan none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
HondurasHonduras Committee dla the Defense of Human Rights w Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Federation of Honduran Workers or FUTH
Hong KongHong Kong Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-Chiny); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Przemysl; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-Chiny) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance w Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement w Chiny [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Tajwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]
WegryWegry NA
IslandiaIslandia NA
IndieIndie numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference
IndonezjaIndonezja NA
IranIran active pro-reform student groups include the "Organization dla Strengthening Unity"; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat), Islamic Coalition Association, and Islamic Engineers Society; opposition groups include Freedom Movement of Iran, the National Front, Marz-e Por Gohar, and various Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, and Komala
IrakIrak in transition following kwiecien 2003 defeat of SADDAM Husayn regime by US-led coalition
IrlandiaIrlandia NA
Wyspa ManWyspa Man none
IzraelIzrael Izraeli nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; Peace Now supports territorial concessions w the Zachodni Brzeg and Gaza; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses
WlochyWlochy Italian manufacturers and merchants associations (Confindustria, Confcommercio); organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura); Roman Catholic Church; three major trade union confederations (Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Sergio COFFERATI] which is left wing, Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Savino PEZZOTTA], which is Roman Catholic centrist, and Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Pietro LARIZZA] which is lay centrist)
JamajkaJamajka New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
JaponiaJaponia NA
JerseyJersey none
JordaniaJordania Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Jordaniaian Bar Association [Saleh ARMOUTI, president]; Jordaniaian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; Muslim Brotherhood [Abd-al-Majid DHUNAYBAT, secretary general]
KazachstanKazachstan Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Alash [Sabet-Kazy AKATAY]; AZAMAT "Citizen" Movement [Petr SVOIK, Murat AUEZOV, and Galym ABILSEITOV, cochairmen]; Democratic Choice of Kazachstan [Galymzhan ZHAKIYANOV, Nurzhan SUBKHANBERDIN, cochairmen]; Labor and Worker's Movement [Madel ISMAILOV, chairman]; Kazachstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Orleu "Development" Movement [Seidakhmet KUTTYKADAM]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; People's Congress of Kazachstan of NKK [Olzhas SULEIMENOV, chairman]; People's Cooperative Party of Kazachstan [Umirzak SARSENOV]; Republican People's Party of Kazachstan or RNPK [Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN]; Socialist Party [Petr SVOIK]
KeniaKenia human rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Kivutha KIBWANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenia or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenia Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
KiribatiKiribati NA
Polnocna KoreaPolnocna Korea NA
Poludniowa KoreaPoludniowa Korea Federation of Korean Przemysl; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations
KuwejtKuwejt several political groups act as de facto parties: Bedouins, merchants, Sunni and Shi'a activists, and secular leftists and nationalists
KirgistanKirgistan Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
LaosLaos noncommunist political groups proscribed; most opposition leaders fled the country w 1975
LotwaLotwa NA
LibanLiban NA
LesothoLesotho NA
LiberiaLiberia NA
LibiaLibia various Arab nationalist movements z almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein NA
LitwaLitwa NA
LuksemburgLuksemburg ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
MakauMakau Catholic Church [Domingos LAM, bishop]; Makau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO, managing director]; Union dla Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong, leader]
Macedonia, czlonek JugoslawiiMacedonia, czlonek Jugoslawii NA
MadagaskarMadagaskar Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
MalawiMalawi National Democratic Alliance [Brown MPINGANJIRA]
MalezjaMalezja NA
MalediwyMalediwy none
MaliMali Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
MaltaMalta NA
Wyspy MarshallaWyspy Marshalla NA
MartynikaMartynika Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union dla Martynika Workers or CSTM [Marc PULVAR]; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants; Proletarian Action Group or GAP
MauretaniaMauretania Arab nationalists; Ba'athists; General Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauretanian Workers or CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Islamists; Mauretanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]
MauritiusMauritius various labor unions
MajottaMajotta NA
MeksykMeksyk Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator dla Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Przemysl or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Union of Workers or UNT; Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers or CROM; Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants or CROC; Roman Catholic Church
MoldawiaMoldawia NA
MonakoMonako NA
MongoliaMongolia NA
MontserratMontserrat NA
MarokoMaroko Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Maroko or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
MozambikMozambik Institute dla Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement dla Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
NamibiaNamibia NA
NauruNauru NA
NepalNepal Maoist guerrilla-based insurgency [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL also known as Prahanda, chairman; and chief negotiator, Dr. Baburam BHATTARAI, from Communist Party of Nepal/Maoist]; numerous small, left-leaning student groups w the capital; several small, radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups
HolandiaHolandia Federation of Holandia Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Holandia Enterprises
Antyle HolenderskieAntyle Holenderskie NA
Nowa KaledoniaNowa Kaledonia NA
Nowa ZelandiaNowa Zelandia NA
NikaraguaNikaragua National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
NigerNiger NA
NigeriaNigeria Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC [Adams OSHIOMOLE]
NiueNiue NA
Wyspa NorfolkWyspa Norfolk none
Mariany PolnocneMariany Polnocne NA
NorwegiaNorwegia NA
OmanOman none
PakistanPakistan military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
PalauPalau NA
PanamaPanama Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua-Nowa GwineaPapua-Nowa Gwinea NA
ParagwajParagwaj Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Workers Central or CNT; Paragwajan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT
PeruPeru leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
FilipinyFilipiny NA
PitcairnPitcairn none
PolskaPolska All Polska Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Maciej MANICKI]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Jozef GLEMP]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]
PortugaliaPortugalia NA
PortorykoPortoryko Armed Forces dla National Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
KatarKatar none
ReunionReunion NA
RumuniaRumunia various human rights and professional associations
RosjaRosja NA
RuandaRuanda IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
Swieta HelenaSwieta Helena none
Saint Kitts i NevisSaint Kitts i Nevis NA
Saint LuciaSaint Lucia NA
Saint-Pierre i MiquelonSaint-Pierre i Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent i GrenadynySaint Vincent i Grenadyny NA
SamoaSamoa NA
San MarinoSan Marino NA
Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i KsiazecaWyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca NA
Arabia SaudyjskaArabia Saudyjska none
SenegalSenegal labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
Federalna Republika JugoslawiiFederalna Republika Jugoslawii Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Democratic League of Kosowo or LDK [Ibrahim RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosowo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Group of 17 Independent Economists or G-17 [leader NA]; National Movement dla the Liberation of Kosowo or LKCK [Sabit GASHI]; Otpor Student Resistance Movement [leader NA]; Political Council dla Presevo, Meveda and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; The People's Movement dla Kosowo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]
SeszeleSeszele Roman Catholic Church; trade unions
Sierra LeoneSierra Leone Trade Unions and Student Unions
SingapurSingapur NA
SlowacjaSlowacja Association of Employers of Slowacja; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
SloweniaSlowenia NA
Wyspy SalomonaWyspy Salomona NA
SomaliaSomalia numerous clan and subclan factions are currently vying dla power
Republika Poludniowej AfrykiRepublika Poludniowej Afryki Congress of Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; Republika Poludniowej Afrykin National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are w a formal alliance z the ANC
HiszpaniaHiszpania business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized w kwiecien 1977); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO; Nunca Mais (Galician dla "Never Again"; formed w response to the oil tanker Prestige oil spill)
Sri LankaSri Lanka Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting dla a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
SudanSudan Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI]; National Congress Party [Ibrahim Ahmed UMAR]; National Democratic Alliance [Muhammed Uthman AL-MIRGHANI, chairman]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army [Dr. John GARANG]; Umma [Sadiq al-MAHDI]
SurinamSurinam General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK]; Mandela Bushnegro Liberation Movement [Leendert ADAMS]; Tucayana Amazonica [Alex JUBITANA, Thomas SABAJO]; Union dla Liberation and Democracy [Kofi AFONGPONG]
SuaziSuazi NA
SzwecjaSzwecja NA
SzwajcariaSzwajcaria NA
SyriaSyria conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood (operates w exile w Jordania and Jemen); non-Ba'th parties have little effective political influence
TajwanTajwan Tajwan independence movement, various business and environmental groups


note: debate on Tajwan independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Tajwan; political liberalization and the increased representation of opposition parties w Tajwan's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that Tajwan currently enjoys de facto independence and - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification or independence - that Tajwan's people must have the deciding voice; advocates of Tajwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify z mainland Chiny; goals of the Tajwan independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Tajwan and entering the UN; other organizations supporting Tajwan independence include the Swiat United Formosans dla Niepodleglosc and the Organization dla Tajwan Nation Building
TadzykistanTadzykistan there are two unregistered political parties z 1,000 or more members: Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
TanzaniaTanzania NA
TajlandiaTajlandia NA
TogoTogo NA
TokelauTokelau none
TongaTonga Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [Akilisi POHIVA, president]
Trynidad i TobagoTrynidad i Tobago Jamaat-al Musilmeen [Yasin BAKR]
TunezjaTunezja the Islamic fundamentalist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
TurcjaTurcja Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Erol YARAR]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Muharrem KAYHAN]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Bayram MERAL]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan NA
Turks i CaicosTurks i Caicos NA
TuvaluTuvalu none
UgandaUganda NA
UkrainaUkraina NA
Zjednoczone Emiraty ArabskieZjednoczone Emiraty Arabskie NA
Wielka BrytaniaWielka Brytania Campaign dla Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
Stany ZjednoczoneStany Zjednoczone NA
UrugwajUrugwaj NA
UzbekistanUzbekistan Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 grudzien 1992; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Tolib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Abduhoshim GHAFUROV, chairman]; Ezgulik [Vasilia INOYATOVA]
VanuatuVanuatu NA
WenezuelaWenezuela FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Wenezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
WietnamWietnam none
Wyspy DziewiczeWyspy Dziewicze NA
Wallis i FutunaWallis i Futuna NA
Sahara ZachodniaSahara Zachodnia none
JemenJemen NA
ZambiaZambia NA
ZimbabweZimbabwe National Konstytucjaal Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Crisis w Zimbabwe Coalition [Brian KAGORO]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Lovemore MATOMBO]
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