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Geography - note (2001)

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Informations about Geography - note in 2001 year

AfghanistanAfghanistan landlocked
AlbaniaAlbania strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
AlgeriaAlgeria second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
American SamoaAmerican Samoa Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean
AndorraAndorra landlocked
AngolaAngola Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
AntarcticaAntarctica the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Arctic OceanArctic Ocean major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
ArgentinaArgentina second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)
ArmeniaArmenia landlocked
Ashmore and Cartier IslandsAshmore and Cartier Islands Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983
Atlantic OceanAtlantic Ocean major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
AustraliaAustralia world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer
AustriaAustria landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan landlocked
Bahamas, TheBahamas, The strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain
BahrainBahrain close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Baker IslandBaker Island treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
BarbadosBarbados easternmost Caribbean island
BelarusBelarus landlocked
BelgiumBelgium crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of both the EU and NATO
BelizeBelize only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean
BeninBenin no natural harbors
BermudaBermuda consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
BhutanBhutan landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
BoliviaBolivia landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority
BotswanaBotswana landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Bouvet IslandBouvet Island covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve
BrazilBrazil largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
British Indian Ocean TerritoryBritish Indian Ocean Territory archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility
British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin Islands strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico
BruneiBrunei close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia
BulgariaBulgaria strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso landlocked
BurmaBurma strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes
BurundiBurundi landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed
CambodiaCambodia a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
CameroonCameroon sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa
CanadaCanada second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 85% of the population is concentrated within 300 km of the US/Canada border
Cape VerdeCape Verde strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Cayman IslandsCayman Islands important location between Cuba and Central America
Central African RepublicCentral African Republic landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
ChadChad landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
ChileChile strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
ChinaChina world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US)
Christmas IslandChristmas Island located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean
Clipperton IslandClipperton Island reef about 8 km in circumference
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsCocos (Keeling) Islands two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation
ColombiaColombia only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
ComorosComoros important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel
Congo, Democratic Republic of theCongo, Democratic Republic of the straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands
Congo, Republic of theCongo, Republic of the about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
Coral Sea IslandsCoral Sea Islands important nesting area for birds and turtles
CroatiaCroatia controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
CubaCuba largest country in Caribbean
Czech RepublicCzech Republic landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
DenmarkDenmark controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen
DjiboutiDjibouti strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland
Dominican RepublicDominican Republic shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)
EcuadorEcuador Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
EgyptEgypt controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
El SalvadorEl Salvador smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea insular and continental regions rather widely separated
EritreaEritrea strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
EthiopiaEthiopia landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993
Europa IslandEuropa Island wildlife sanctuary
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands
FijiFiji includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited
FinlandFinland long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
FranceFrance largest West European nation
French GuianaFrench Guiana mostly an unsettled wilderness
French PolynesiaFrench Polynesia includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Nauru
French Southern and Antarctic LandsFrench Southern and Antarctic Lands islands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Indian Ocean
Gambia, TheGambia, The almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa
Gaza StripGaza Strip there are 25 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 2000 est.)
GermanyGermany strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
GhanaGhana Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)
GibraltarGibraltar strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
GreeceGreece strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
GreenlandGreenland dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
GrenadaGrenada the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada
GuamGuam largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean
GuatemalaGuatemala no natural harbors on west coast
GuernseyGuernsey large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port
HaitiHaiti shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island and McDonald Islands primarily used for research stations
Holy See (Vatican City)Holy See (Vatican City) urban; landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights
Hong KongHong Kong more than 200 islands
Howland IslandHowland Island almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
HungaryHungary landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin
IcelandIceland strategic location between Greenland and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe
IndiaIndia dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes
Indian OceanIndian Ocean major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait
IndonesiaIndonesia archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
IrelandIreland strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 97 km of Dublin
Isle of ManIsle of Man one small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest, and is a bird sanctuary
IsraelIsrael there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 2000 est.)
ItalyItaly strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
JamaicaJamaica strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal
Jan MayenJan Mayen barren volcanic island with some moss and grass
JapanJapan strategic location in northeast Asia
Jarvis IslandJarvis Island sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife
JerseyJersey largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
Johnston AtollJohnston Atoll strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; egg-shaped reef is 34 km in circumference; closed to the public; former US nuclear weapons test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS); some low-growing vegetation
Juan de Nova IslandJuan de Nova Island wildlife sanctuary
KazakhstanKazakhstan landlocked; Russia leases approximately 6,000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome
KenyaKenya the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
Kingman ReefKingman Reef barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public
KiribatiKiribati 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru
Korea, NorthKorea, North strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated
KuwaitKuwait strategic location at head of Persian Gulf
KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan landlocked
LaosLaos landlocked
LebanonLebanon Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
LesothoLesotho landlocked; surrounded by South Africa
LiechtensteinLiechtenstein along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
LuxembourgLuxembourg landlocked
MacauMacau essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
MadagascarMadagascar world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
MalawiMalawi landlocked
MalaysiaMalaysia strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
MaldivesMaldives 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean
MaliMali landlocked
MaltaMalta the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Malta, Ghawdex or Gozo, and Kemmuna or Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range
MauritaniaMauritania most of the population concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott and Nouadhibou and along the Senegal River in the southern part of the country
MayotteMayotte part of Comoro Archipelago; 18 islands
MexicoMexico strategic location on southern border of US
Micronesia, Federated States ofMicronesia, Federated States of four major island groups totaling 607 islands
Midway IslandsMidway Islands a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge and open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation and photography, sport fishing, snorkeling, and scuba diving
MoldovaMoldova landlocked
MonacoMonaco second smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban
MongoliaMongolia landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
MoroccoMorocco strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
NauruNauru Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia; only 53 km south of Equator
Navassa IslandNavassa Island strategic location 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus
NepalNepal landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks
NetherlandsNetherlands located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)
New ZealandNew Zealand about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
NigerNiger landlocked
NiueNiue one of world's largest coral islands
Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern Mariana Islands strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean
NorwayNorway about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway is the only NATO member having a land boundary with Russia
OmanOman strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
Pacific OceanPacific Ocean the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
PakistanPakistan controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
PalauPalau includes World War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) and world-famous rock islands; archipelago of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain
Palmyra AtollPalmyra Atoll about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation, coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall
PanamaPanama strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
ParaguayParaguay landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil
PeruPeru shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia
PolandPoland historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
PortugalPortugal Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Puerto RicoPuerto Rico important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
QatarQatar strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
RomaniaRomania controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
RussiaRussia largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture
RwandaRwanda landlocked; predominantly rural population
Saint HelenaSaint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns
Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Pierre and Miquelon vegetation scanty
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada
San MarinoSan Marino landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
SenegalSenegal The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal
SeychellesSeychelles 40 granitic and about 50 coralline islands
SingaporeSingapore focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
SlovakiaSlovakia landlocked
SomaliaSomalia strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
South AfricaSouth Africa South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South Georgia
Southern OceanSouthern Ocean the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Southern Ocean; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the very cold polar surface waters to the south from the warmer waters to the north; the Front and the Current extend entirely around Antarctica, reaching south of 60 degrees south near New Zealand and near 48 degrees south in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds
SpainSpain strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
Spratly IslandsSpratly Islands strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South China Sea; includes numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, and coral reefs
Sri LankaSri Lanka strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes
SudanSudan largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
SurinameSuriname mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, most of which lives along the coast
SvalbardSvalbard northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area
SwazilandSwaziland landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
SwedenSweden strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
SwitzerlandSwitzerland landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France and northern Italy, contains the highest elevations in Europe
SyriaSyria there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 1999 est.)
TajikistanTajikistan landlocked
TanzaniaTanzania Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa
ThailandThailand controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore
TongaTonga archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)
Tromelin IslandTromelin Island climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones; wildlife sanctuary
TunisiaTunisia strategic location in central Mediterranean; Malta and Tunisia are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for oil exploration
TurkeyTurkey strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan landlocked
Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands 30 islands (eight inhabited)
UgandaUganda landlocked
UkraineUkraine strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe
United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
United KingdomUnited Kingdom lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
United StatesUnited States world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)
UzbekistanUzbekistan along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
VenezuelaVenezuela on major sea and air routes linking North and South America
Virgin IslandsVirgin Islands important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the Caribbean
Wake IslandWake Island strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean; emergency landing location for transpacific flights
Wallis and FutunaWallis and Futuna both island groups have fringing reefs
West BankWest Bank landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal aquifers; there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 1999 est.)
YemenYemen strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
YugoslaviaYugoslavia controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
ZambiaZambia landlocked
ZimbabweZimbabwe landlocked
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