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Swaziland (2002)

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Swaziland 2002 year

Administrative divisions 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Age structure 0-14 years: 45.5% (male 254,573; female 256,677)

15-64 years: 51.9% (male 281,645; female 301,071)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 12,027; female 17,612) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Airports 18 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Area total: 17,363 sq km

land: 17,203 sq km

water: 160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.
Birth rate 39.59 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $448 million

expenditures: $506.9 million, including capital expenditures of $147 million (FY01/02 )
Capital Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital
Climate varies from tropical to near temperate
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been accepted
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland

conventional short form: Swaziland
Currency lilangeni (SZL)
Death rate 23.26 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $336 million (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James D. McGEE

embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane

mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane

telephone: [268] 404-6441 through 404-6445

FAX: [268] 404-5959
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA

chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683

FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059
Disputes - international Swaziland continues to press South Africa into ceding ethnic Swazi lands in Kangwane region of KwaZulu-Natal province that were long ago part of the Swazi Kingdom
Economic aid - recipient $104 million (2001)
Economy - overview In this small landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 80% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years: diamond mines have shut down because of the depletion of easily accessible reserves; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978; and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends more than two-thirds of its exports. Remittances from the Southern African Customs Union and Swazi workers in South African mines substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. Prospects for 2002 are strengthened by the country's status as a beneficiary of the US African Growth and Opportunity Act initiative.
Electricity - consumption 900.66 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 564 million kWh

note: supplied by South Africa (2000)
Electricity - production 362 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 56%

hydro: 44%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m

highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Environment - current issues limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups African 97%, European 3%
Exchange rates emalangeni per US dollar - 11.5808 (January 2002), 8.4933 (2001), 6.9056 (2000), 6.1087 (1999), 5.4807 (1998), 4.6032 (1997); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African rand; emalangeni is the plural form of lilangeni
Executive branch chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $702 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Exports - partners South Africa 72%, EU 12%, UK 6%, Mozambique 4%, US 4% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 10%

industry: 43%

services: 47% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
Highways total: 3,800 km

paved: 1,064 km

unpaved: 2,736 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 564 million kWh

note: supplied by South Africa (2000)
Imports $850 million f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners South Africa 89%, EU 5%, Japan 2%, Singapore 2% (2000)
Independence 6 September 1968 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.7% (FY95/96)
Industries mining (coal), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel
Infant mortality rate 109.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2001)
Irrigated land 690 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 535 km

border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Land use arable land: 9.77%

permanent crops: 0.7%

other: 89.53% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Legal system based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Life expectancy at birth total population: 37 years

male: 36.35 years

female: 37.66 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 78.3%

male: 78%

female: 78.4% (1999 est.)
Location Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $20 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.75% (FY00/01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 253,510 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 146,805 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Nationality noun: Swazi(s)

adjective: Swazi
Natural hazards drought
Natural resources asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders political parties are banned by the constitution - the following are considered political associations - Imbokodvo National Movement or INM [leader NA]; Ngwane National Libertatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [Elmond SHONGWE, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,123,605

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.63% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 2 plus 4 repeaters, shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios 170,000 (1999)
Railways total: 297 km

narrow gauge: 297 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 71 km which are not in use (2001)
Religions Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age
Telephone system general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system

domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 38,500 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 45,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 5 plus 7 relay stations (2001)
Terrain mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Total fertility rate 5.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 34% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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