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Swaziland (2003)

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Swaziland 2003 year

Administrative divisions 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.4% (male 242,762; female 238,141)

15-64 years: 55.1% (male 317,526; female 321,709)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 18,040; female 23,041) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Airports 18 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Area total: 17,363 sq km

land: 17,203 sq km

water: 160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.
Birth rate 29.37 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $448 million

expenditures: $506.9 million, including capital expenditures of $147 million (FY 01/02)
Capital Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital
Climate varies from tropical to near temperate
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been accepted
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland

conventional short form: Swaziland
Currency lilangeni (SZL)
Death rate 21.08 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $320 million (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James D. McGEE

embassy: Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane

mailing address: P. O. Box 199, Mbabane

telephone: [268] 404-6441 through 404-6445

FAX: [268] 404-5959
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA

chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6683

FAX: [1] (202) 244-8059
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $104 million (2001)
Economy - overview In this small, landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 80% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends more than two-thirds of its exports. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2002 because of drought, and more than one-third of the adult population was infected by HIV/AIDS.
Electricity - consumption 962.9 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 639 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2001)
Electricity - production 348.3 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 58%

hydro: 42%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m

highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Environment - current issues limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups African 97%, European 3%
Exchange rates emalangeni per US dollar - 10.54 (2002), 8.61 (2001), 6.94 (2000), 6.11 (1999), 5.53 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Themba DLAMINI (since 14 November 2003)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $820 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Exports - partners South Africa 72%, EU 14.2%, Mozambique 3.7%, US 3.5%, UK (1999)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
GDP purchasing power parity - $5.542 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17%

industry: 44%

services: 39% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
Highways total: 3,247 km

paved: NA

unpaved: NA (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 50.2% (1995)
Imports 639 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2001)
Imports $938 million f.o.b. (2002)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners South Africa 88.8%, EU 5.6%, Japan 0.6%, Singapore 0.4% (1999)
Independence 6 September 1968 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.7% (FY 95/96)
Industries mining (coal), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel
Infant mortality rate total: 67.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 63.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.8% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2002)
Irrigated land 690 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Labor force 383,200 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 535 km

border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Land use arable land: 9.77%

permanent crops: 0.7%

other: 89.53% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Legal system based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held 18 October 2003 (next to be held NA October 2008)

election results: House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Life expectancy at birth total population: 39.47 years

male: 41.02 years

female: 37.87 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.6%

male: 82.6%

female: 80.8% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $20 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.75% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 284,530 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 165,005 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Nationality noun: Swazi(s)

adjective: Swazi
Natural hazards drought
Natural resources asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders political parties are banned by the constitution - the following are considered political associations; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM [leader NA]; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [Elmond SHONGWE, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,161,219

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 40% (1995)
Population growth rate 0.83% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 2 plus 4 repeaters, shortwave 3 (2001)
Railways total: 301 km

narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)
Religions Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age
Telephone system general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system

domestic: system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 38,500 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 45,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 5 plus 7 relay stations (2001)
Terrain mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Total fertility rate 3.92 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 34% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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