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Swaziland (2001)

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Swaziland 2001 year

Administrative divisions 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Age structure 0-14 years:
45.53% (male 250,327; female 252,479)

15-64 years:
51.88% (male 276,186; female 296,728)

65 years and over:
2.59% (male 11,687; female 16,936) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Airports 18 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
10 (2000 est.)
Area total:
17,363 sq km

17,203 sq km

160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s have pressured the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy.
Birth rate 40.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$400 million

$450 million, including capital expenditures of $115 million (FY96/97)
Capital Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital
Climate varies from tropical to near temperate
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people; since then a few more outlines for a constitution have been compiled under the Constitutional Review Commission (CRC), but so far none have been accepted
Country name conventional long form:
Kingdom of Swaziland

conventional short form:
Currency lilangeni (SZL)
Death rate 21.84 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $281 million (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Gregory L. JOHNSON

Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane

mailing address:
P. O. Box 199, Mbabane

[268] 404-6441 through 404-6445

[268] 404-5959
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Mary Madzandza KANYA

3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 362-6683

[1] (202) 244-8059
Disputes - international Swaziland has asked South Africa to open negotiations on reincorporating some nearby South African territories that are populated by ethnic Swazis or that were long ago part of the Swazi Kingdom
Economic aid - recipient $55 million (1995)
Economy - overview In this small landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies more than 60% of the population. Manufacturing features a number of agroprocessing factories. Mining has declined in importance in recent years: diamond mines have shut down because of the depletion of easily accessible reserves; high-grade iron ore deposits were depleted by 1978; and health concerns have cut world demand for asbestos. Exports of soft drink concentrate, sugar, and wood pulp are the main earners of hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives four-fifths of its imports and to which it sends two-thirds of its exports. Remittances from the Southern African Customs Union and Swazi workers in South African mines substantially supplement domestically earned income. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. Prospects for 2001 are strengthened by government millennium projects for a new convention center, additional hotels, an amusement park, a new airport, and stepped-up roadbuilding and factory construction plans.
Electricity - consumption 198 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 852 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 701 million kWh

supplied by South Africa (1999)
Electricity - production 375 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Great Usutu River 21 m

highest point:
Emlembe 1,862 m
Environment - current issues limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
Desertification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups African 97%, European 3%
Exchange rates emalangeni per US dollar - 7.7803 (January 2001), 6.9056 (2000), 6.1087 (1999), 5.4807 (1998), 4.6032 (1997), 4.2706 (1996); note - the Swazi lilangeni is at par with the South African rand; emalangeni is the plural form of lilangeni
Executive branch chief of state:
King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government:
Prime Minister Sibusiso Barnabas DLAMINI (since 9 August 1996)

Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Exports 852 million kWh (1999)
Exports $881 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Exports - partners South Africa 65%, EU 12%, Mozambique 11%, US 5% (1998)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all placed horizontally
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


44% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.4% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
Highways total:
3,000 km

850 km

2,150 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 701 million kWh

supplied by South Africa (1999)
Imports $928 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Imports - partners South Africa 84%, EU 5%, Japan 2%, Singapore 2% (1998)
Independence 6 September 1968 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.7% (FY95/96)
Industries mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates
Infant mortality rate 109.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.4% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Irrigated land 670 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation private sector 70%, public sector 30%
Land boundaries total:
535 km

border countries:
Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

20% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Legal system based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)

House of Assembly - last held 16 and 24 October 1998 (next to be held NA 2003)

election results:
House of Assembly - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Life expectancy at birth total population:
38.62 years

37.86 years

39.4 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


75.6% (1995 est.)
Location Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (Army), Royal Swaziland Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $19.198 million (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.75% (FY00/01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
248,084 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
143,618 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Imbokodvo National Movement or INM [leader NA]; Ngwane National Libertatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]; Swaziland National Front or SWANAFRO [Elmond SHONGWE, president]; Swaziland Progressive Party or SPP [J. J. NQUKU, president]; Swaziland United Front or SUF [Matsapa SHONGWE, leader]

political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large public gatherings; the organizations listed are political associations
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,104,343

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.83% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 6 (2000)
Radios 155,000 (1997)
Railways total:
297 km; note - includes 71 km which are not in use

narrow gauge:
297 km 1.067-m gauge
Religions Protestant 55%, Muslim 10%, Roman Catholic 5%, indigenous beliefs 30%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.69 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age
Telephone system general assessment:
not a modern system

system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 33,500 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 10 (2000)
Terrain mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Total fertility rate 5.82 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 22% (1995 est.)
Waterways none
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