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Mongolia (2003)

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Mongolia 2003 roku

 Mongolia
Podzial administracyjny 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.7% (male 423,081; female 408,119)


15-64 years: 65.7% (male 890,482; female 892,140)


65 years and over: 3.6% (male 42,292; female 56,201) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Lotniska 50 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 10


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 40


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Terytorium total: 1.565 million sq km


land: 1,555,400 sq km


water: 9,600 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne The Mongols gained fame w the 13th century when under Genghis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart w the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence w 1921 z Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed w 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP w a national election w 1996. Over the next four years, the DUC put forward a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and to democratize the political system. The former Communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional restructuring and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won an overwhelming victory w the legislature - z 72 of the 76 seats - and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP has focused on social welfare and public order priorities.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.39 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $386 million


expenditures: $427 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Stolica Ulaanbaatar
Klimat desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 12 luty 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Mongolia


local long form: none


local short form: Mongol Uls


former: Outer Mongolia
Waluta togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.18 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $913 million (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. Slutz


embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [976] (11) 329095


FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD


chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117


FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $208.7 million (1999 est.)
Ekonomia Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account dla a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto, disappeared almost overnight w 1990-1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government embraced free-market economics, eased price controls, liberalized domestic and international trade, and attempted to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up w 1997-1999 after stalling w 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines w world prices of copper and cashmere. In sierpien and wrzesien 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Rosjan ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable w this sector. Mongolia joined the Swiat Trade Organization (WTrO) w 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the Consultative Group Meeting, held w Ulaanbaatar w czerwiec 1999. The MPRP government, elected w lipiec 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal z a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices dla Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture w early 2000 and 2001 restrained real Produkt krajowy brutto growth w 2000-2001. Despite drought problems w 2002, Produkt krajowy brutto rose 4.0%, followed by a solid 5.0% increase w 2003. The first applications under the land privatization law have been marked by a number of disputes over particular sites. Rosja claims Mongolia owes it $11 billion from the old Soviet period; any settlement could substantially increase Mongolia's foreign debt burden.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.194 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 25 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 196 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.225 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 100%


hydro: 0%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m


highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Rosjan) 3.4% (1998)
Kurs waluty togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,134 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,021.87 (1999), 840.83 (1998)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 czerwiec 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 lipiec 2000)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural w consultation z the president


elections: president nominated by parties w the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 20 maj 2001 (next to be held NA maj 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 lipiec 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)


election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote w the State Great Hural of 68 to 3
Eksport 25 million kWh (2001)
Eksport $501 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 43.8%, US 33.6%, Rosja 9.6% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band w yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation dla fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $5.06 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 32%


industry: 23%


services: 45% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.9% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Autostrady total: 49,250 km


paved: 1,724 km


unpaved: 47,526 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.9%


highest 10%: 24.5% (1995)
Import 196 million kWh (2001)
Import $659 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import - partnerzy Rosja 32%, Chiny 19.4%, South Korea 12.1%, US 9.1%, Niemcy 4.7%, Japonia 4.3% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 11 lipiec 1921 (from Chiny)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.1% (2002 est.)
Przemysl construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages, processing of animal products
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 57.16 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 60.75 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 53.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 3% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CP (provisional), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 5 (2001)
Nawadniane tereny 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts dla approval by the president)
Sila robocza 1.4 million (2001)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki primarily herding/agricultural
Granica total: 8,162 km


border countries: Chiny 4,677 km, Rosja 3,485 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0.84%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 99.16% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Rosjan (1999)
System prawny blend of Soviet, German, and US systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system z some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 2 lipiec 2000 (next to be held NA lipiec 2004)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4
Zywotnosc total population: 63.81 years


male: 61.63 years


female: 66.09 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.1%


male: 99.2%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia, between Chiny and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs w peacetime
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $23.1 million (FY02)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.2% (FY02)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 796,449 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 516,502 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 32,529 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Revolution Day, 11 lipiec (1921)
Narodowosc noun: Mongolian(s)


adjective: Mongolian
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions
Surowce naturalne oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]


note: the MPRP is the ruling party
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 2,712,315 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 36% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.42% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie none
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Linie kolejowe 1,815 km


broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2002)
Religie Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily w the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones dla each thousand persons


domestic: NA


international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski Region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 104,100 (1999)
Telefony komorkowe 110,000 (2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains w west and southwest; Gobi Desert w south-central
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.28 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 20% (2000)
Drogi wodne 400 km (1999)
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