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Mongolia (2007)

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Mongolia 2007 year

Administrative divisions 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Age structure 0-14 years: 28.7% (male 432,309/female 415,382)

15-64 years: 67.4% (male 994,186/female 995,986)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 49,517/female 64,406) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Airports 44 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 13

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. The ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
Birth rate 21.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $695.3 million

expenditures: $634.5 million (2005)
Capital name: Ulaanbaatar

geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 12 February 1992
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia
Death rate 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $1.38 billion (2005)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON

embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13

telephone: [976] (11) 329-095

FAX: [976] (11) 320-776
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdan BOLD

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $211.9 million (2005)
Economy - overview Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004, 5.5% in 2005, and 7.5% in 2006, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the former's actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
Electricity - consumption 2.94 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 15.95 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 125 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 3.43 billion kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Exchange rates togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,179.6 (2006), 1,205 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 November 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)

elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural

election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Exports 15.95 million kWh (2006)
Exports $1.064 billion f.o.b. (2005)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners China 71.8%, Canada 11.7%, US 7.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 21.7%

industry: 27.9%

services: 50.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.5% according to official estimate (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 24.6% (2002)
Imports 125 million kWh (2006)
Imports $1.184 billion c.i.f. (2005)
Imports NA
Imports 12,280 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners Russia 29.8%, China 29.5%, Japan 11.9% (2006)
Independence 11 July 1921 (from China)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2006 est.)
Industries construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Infant mortality rate total: 42.65 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 45.86 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 39.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.5% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 840 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Labor force 1.577 million (2005)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 39.9%

industry: 31.4%

services: 28.7% (2005)
Land boundaries total: 8,220 km

border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Land use arable land: 0.76%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.24% (2005)
Languages Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Legal system blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms

elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.8%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.4%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - 2 seats disputed and unfilled; following June 2004 election MDC collapsed
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.99 years

male: 64.61 years

female: 69.48 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2000 census)
Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 73 ships (1000 GRT or over) 448,252 GRT/668,689 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 12, cargo 52, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 5

foreign-owned: 62 (Bulgaria 2, China 3, Hong Kong 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 17, Singapore 12, Syria 1, Thailand 1, Ukraine 3, UAE 5, Vietnam 14) (2007)
Military branches Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (Agaaryn Dovtolgoonoos Khamgaalakh Tsergiyn Komandial, MPAF); there is no navy (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Nationality noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian
Natural hazards dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Sanji BAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; People's Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]

note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,951,786 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 36.1% (2004)
Population growth rate 1.486% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 115 (includes 20 National radio broadcaster repeaters), shortwave 4 (2006)
Railways total: 1,810 km

broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2006)
Religions Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.769 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas

domestic: very low density of about 6 main lines per 100 persons (roughly 25 per 100 persons including cellular mobile phones); there are 3 wireless providers

international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
Telephones - main lines in use 156,000 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 557,200 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 456 (including provincial and low-power repeaters) (2006)
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Total fertility rate 2.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.3% (2005)
Waterways 580 km

note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
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