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Mongolia (2001)

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Mongolia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

there may be a new province named Gobi-Sumber; further, there may now be 21 provinces and 1 capital city instead of 18 provinces and 3 municipalities
Age structure 0-14 years:
32.99% (male 445,252; female 430,758)

15-64 years:
63.13% (male 837,771; female 838,384)

65 years and over:
3.88% (male 44,436; female 58,398) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Airports 34 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1.565 million sq km

1.565 million sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. However, the former communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional reforms and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats in Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.
Birth rate 21.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$262 million

$328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 12 February 1992
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:

local long form:

local short form:
Mongol Uls

Outer Mongolia
Currency togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Death rate 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $760 million (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John DINGER

inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address:
United States Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

[976] (11) 329095

[976] (11) 320776
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR

2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 333-7117

[1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $200 million (1998 est.)
Economy - overview Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, which was prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt.
Electricity - consumption 2.767 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 80 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 363 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 2.671 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point:
Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)
Exchange rates togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,097.00 (December 2000), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)

Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president

president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - NA%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3
Exports 80 million kWh (1999)
Exports $454.3 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Exports - commodities copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners China 60%, US 20%, Russia 9%, Japan 2% (2000 est.)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


42% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,780 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Highways total:
3,387 km

1,563 km

1,824 km

there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
24.5% (1995)
Imports 363 million kWh (1999)
Imports $510.7 million (c.i.f., 1999)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners Russia 33%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 10%, US 4% (1999)
Independence 11 July 1921 (from China)
Industrial production growth rate 2.4% (2000 est.)
Industries construction materials, mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages, processing of animal products
Infant mortality rate 53.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.6% (1999)
International organization participation ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2001)
Irrigated land 800 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)
Labor force 1.3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation primarily herding/agricultural
Land boundaries total:
8,161.9 km

border countries:
China 4,676.9 km, Russia 3,485 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

1.9% (2000 est.)
Languages Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Legal system blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4
Life expectancy at birth total population:
64.26 years

62.14 years

66.5 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


97.5% (2000)
Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime
Military expenditures - dollar figure $25.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.3% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
748,779 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
486,491 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
30,230 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards dust and snow storms, grassland and forest fires, drought and "zud", which is a combination of drought followed by harsh winter conditions
Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]

the MPRP is the ruling party
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,654,999 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 40% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.47% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios 155,900 (1999)
Railways 1,815 km

broad gauge:
1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)
Religions Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.76 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons


satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Telephones - main lines in use 104,100 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 110,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999)
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Total fertility rate 2.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 400 km (1999)
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