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Mongolia (2001)

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Mongolia 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

there may be a new province named Gobi-Sumber; further, there may now be 21 provinces and 1 capital city instead of 18 provinces and 3 municipalities
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
32.99% (male 445,252; female 430,758)

15-64 years:
63.13% (male 837,771; female 838,384)

65 years and over:
3.88% (male 44,436; female 58,398) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Lotniska 34 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
5 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
1.565 million sq km

1.565 million sq km

0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Long a province of Chiny, Mongolia won its independence w 1921 z Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed w 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP w a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. However, the former communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional reforms and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats w Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$262 million

$328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Ulaanbaatar
Klimat desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 12 luty 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:

conventional short form:

local long form:

local short form:
Mongol Uls

Outer Mongolia
Waluta togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $760 million (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador John DINGER

inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address:
Stany Zjednoczone Embassy w Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

[976] (11) 329095

[976] (11) 320776
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR

2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

[1] (202) 333-7117

[1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general:
New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $200 million (1998 est.)
Ekonomia Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account dla a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto, disappeared almost overnight w 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, which was prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up w 1997-99 after stalling w 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines w world prices of copper and cashmere. In sierpien and wrzesien 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Rosjan ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable w this sector. Mongolia joined the Swiat Trade Organization (WTrO) w 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held w Ulaanbaatar w czerwiec 1999. The MPRP government, elected w lipiec 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal z a heavy burden of external debt.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.767 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 80 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 363 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.671 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point:
Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Rosjan) 3.4% (1998)
Kurs waluty togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,097.00 (grudzien 2000), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997), 548.40 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 czerwiec 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 lipiec 2000)

Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural w consultation z the president

president nominated by parties w the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 20 maj 2001 (next to be held NA maj 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 lipiec 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - NA%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote w the State Great Hural of 68 to 3
Eksport 80 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $454.3 million (f.o.b., 1999)
Eksport - towary copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 60%, US 20%, Rosja 9%, Japonia 2% (2000 est.)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band w yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation dla fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


42% (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,780 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -1% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Autostrady total:
3,387 km

1,563 km

1,824 km

there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
24.5% (1995)
Import 363 million kWh (1999)
Import $510.7 million (c.i.f., 1999)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import - partnerzy Rosja 33%, Chiny 21%, Japonia 12%, South Korea 10%, US 4% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 11 lipiec 1921 (from Chiny)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.4% (2000 est.)
Przemysl construction materials, mining (particularly coal and copper); food and beverages, processing of animal products
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 53.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 7.6% (1999)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 5 (2001)
Nawadniane tereny 800 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts dla approval by the president)
Sila robocza 1.3 million (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki primarily herding/agricultural
Granica total:
8,161.9 km

border countries:
Chiny 4,676.9 km, Rosja 3,485 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

1.9% (2000 est.)
Jezyki Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Rosjan (1999)
System prawny blend of Rosjan, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system z some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 2 lipiec 2000 (next to be held NA lipiec 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4
Zywotnosc total population:
64.26 years

62.14 years

66.5 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


97.5% (2000)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia, between Chiny and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs w peacetime
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $25.5 million (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.3% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
748,779 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
486,491 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
30,230 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Revolution Day, 11 lipiec (1921)
Narodowosc noun:

Naturalne zagrozenia dust and snow storms, grassland and forest fires, drought and "zud", which is a combination of drought followed by harsh winter conditions
Surowce naturalne oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party or MDNSP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]

the MPRP is the ruling party
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 2,654,999 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 40% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.47% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie none
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radia 155,900 (1999)
Linie kolejowe 1,815 km

broad gauge:
1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)
Religie Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily w the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.76 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
very low density: about 3.5 telephones dla each thousand persons


satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski Region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 104,100 (1999)
Telefony komorkowe 110,000 (2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains w west and southwest; Gobi Desert w south-central
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.39 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 400 km (1999)
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