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Mongolia (2005)

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Mongolia 2005 year

Administrative divisions 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Age structure 0-14 years: 28.7% (male 407,547/female 392,440)

15-64 years: 67.7% (male 943,418/female 945,063)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 44,413/female 58,391) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Airports 46 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
Birth rate 21.52 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $582 million

expenditures: $602 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 12 February 1992
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia
Death rate 7.03 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $1.191 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ

embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [976] (11) 329095

FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $215 million (2003)
Economy - overview Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth due to reform embracing free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth improved from 2002 at 4% to 2003 at 5%, due largely to high copper prices and new gold production, with the government claiming a 10.6% growth rate for 2004 that is unconfirmed. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily impacted by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy. The actual size of this grey - largely cash - economy is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally constitute a sizeable portion. Money laundering is growing as an accompanying concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on very favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
Electricity - consumption 2.209 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - exports 8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - imports 130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - production 2.692 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Exchange rates togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.7 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ (since 20 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 September 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) in consultation with the president

elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural

election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Exports 8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)
Exports $853 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 497 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners China 47.8%, US 17.9%, UK 15.7% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20.6%

industry: 21.4%

services: 58% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 10.6% according to official estimate (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Heliports 2 (2004 est.)
Highways total: 49,256 km

paved: 8,874 km

unpaved: 40,376 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Imports 130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)
Imports $1 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports 11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners Russia 33.3%, China 23.6%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 6%, US 4.6% (2004)
Independence 11 July 1921 (from China)
Industrial production growth rate 4.1% (2002 est.)
Industries construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Infant mortality rate total: 53.79 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 57.25 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 50.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Labor force 1.488 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%, other 3.7% (2003)
Land boundaries total: 8,220 km

border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Land use arable land: 0.77%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.23% (2001)
Languages Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Legal system blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms

elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election, two seats in dispute and unoccupied
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.52 years

male: 62.3 years

female: 66.86 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2002)
Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 54, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 38 (China 2, Lebanon 1, Philippines 1, Russia 10, Singapore 10, South Korea 1, Syria 1, Thailand 1, Ukraine 1, UAE 4, Vietnam 6) (2005)
Military branches Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF) (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY02)
National holiday Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Nationality noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian
Natural hazards dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [R. GONCHIKDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]

note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,791,272 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 36.1% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 1.45% (2005 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 62, shortwave 3 (2004)
Railways total: 1,810 km

broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Religions Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas

domestic: very low density of about 6.5 telephones for each thousand persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces

international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Telephones - main lines in use 142,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 404,400 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 52 (plus 21 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Total fertility rate 2.26 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.7% (2003)
Waterways 580 km

note: only waterway in operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
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