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Mongolia (2005)

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Mongolia 2005 roku

 Mongolia
Podzial administracyjny 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 28.7% (male 407,547/female 392,440)


15-64 years: 67.7% (male 943,418/female 945,063)


65 years and over: 3.7% (male 44,413/female 58,391) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Lotniska 46 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 11


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 18


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 1,564,116 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne The Mongols gained fame w the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart w the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence w 1921 z Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed w 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP w a national election w 1996. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power w 2000 and produced a coalition government w 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.52 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $582 million


expenditures: $602 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Stolica Ulaanbaatar
Klimat desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 12 luty 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Mongolia


local long form: none


local short form: Mongol Uls


former: Outer Mongolia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.03 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.191 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ


embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [976] (11) 329095


FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD


chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117


FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $215 million (2003)
Ekonomia Economic activity w Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account dla a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto, disappeared almost overnight w 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth due to reform embracing free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts w 2000, 2001, and 2002 resulted w massive livestock die-off and zero or negative Produkt krajowy brutto growth. This was compounded by falling prices dla Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth improved from 2002 at 4% to 2003 at 5%, due largely to high copper prices and new gold production, z the government claiming a 10.6% growth rate dla 2004 that is unconfirmed. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily impacted by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Rosja, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Chiny is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The Swiat Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy. The actual size of this grey - largely cash - economy is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally constitute a sizeable portion. Money laundering is growing as an accompanying concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt z Rosja at the end of 2003 on very favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the Swiat Trade Organization w 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.209 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)
Elektrycznosc - import 130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.692 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m


highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Rosjan) 0.1% (2000)
Kurs waluty togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.7 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 czerwiec 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ (since 20 sierpien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) w consultation z the president


elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented w State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 22 maj 2005 (next to be held w maj 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural


election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Eksport 8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)
Eksport $853 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 497 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 47.8%, US 17.9%, UK 15.7% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band w yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation dla fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 20.6%


industry: 21.4%


services: 58% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 10.6% according to official estimate (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2004 est.)
Autostrady total: 49,256 km


paved: 8,874 km


unpaved: 40,376 km (2002)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%


highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Import 130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)
Import $1 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Import 11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import - partnerzy Rosja 33.3%, Chiny 23.6%, Japonia 7.4%, South Korea 6%, US 4.6% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 11 lipiec 1921 (from Chiny)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.1% (2002 est.)
Przemysl construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 53.79 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 57.25 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 50.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 11% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Sila robocza 1.488 million (2003)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%, other 3.7% (2003)
Granica total: 8,220 km


border countries: Chiny 4,677 km, Rosja 3,543 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0.77%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 99.23% (2001)
Jezyki Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Rosjan (1999)
System prawny blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms


elections: last held 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008)


election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following czerwiec 2004 election, two seats w dispute and unoccupied
Zywotnosc total population: 64.52 years


male: 62.3 years


female: 66.86 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.8%


male: 98%


female: 97.5% (2002)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia, between Chiny and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 54, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 38 (Chiny 2, Liban 1, Filipiny 1, Rosja 10, Singapur 10, South Korea 1, Syria 1, Tajlandia 1, Ukraina 1, UAE 4, Wietnam 6) (2005)
Wojsko Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF) (2005)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $23.1 million (FY02)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.2% (FY02)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Revolution Day, 11 lipiec (1921)
Narodowosc noun: Mongolian(s)


adjective: Mongolian
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Surowce naturalne oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [R. GONCHIKDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]


note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z CWRP contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition w grudzien 2004
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 2,791,272 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 36.1% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.45% (2005 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 62, shortwave 3 (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,810 km


broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Religie Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: network is improving z international direct dialing available w many areas


domestic: very low density of about 6.5 telephones dla each thousand persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces


international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski Region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 142,300 (2004)
Telefony komorkowe 404,400 (2004)
Stacje telewizyjne 52 (plus 21 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains w west and southwest; Gobi Desert w south-central
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.26 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 6.7% (2003)
Drogi wodne 580 km


note: only waterway w operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze w winter, are open from maj to wrzesien (2004)
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