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Mongolia (2002)

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Mongolia 2002 year

Administrative divisions 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Age structure 0-14 years: 32% (male 438,176; female 422,960)

15-64 years: 64.1% (male 864,033; female 865,172)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 45,080; female 59,011) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Airports 34 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 26

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Area total: 1.565 million sq km

land: 1,555,400 sq km

water: 9,600 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background The Mongols entered history in the 13th century when under GENGHIS KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Over the next four years the DUC put forward a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and democratize the political system. However, the former Communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional restructuring and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won an overwhelming victory in the legislature - with 72 of the 76 seats - and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.
Birth rate 21.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $262 million

expenditures: $328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 12 February 1992
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia
Currency togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Death rate 7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $760 million (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John DINGER

embassy: inner northeast part of the Big Ring Road, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar

mailing address: United States Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [976] (11) 329095

FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $208.7 million (1999 est.)
Economy - overview Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth in 2000-01.
Electricity - consumption 2.732 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 25 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 181 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 2.77 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former Communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998)
Exchange rates togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,101.29 (December 2001), 1,097.70 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president

elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3
Exports 25 million kWh (2000)
Exports $466.1 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners China 59%, US 20%, Russia 10%, Japan 2% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 32%

industry: 30%

services: 38% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,770 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.4% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Highways total: 3,387 km

paved: 1,563 km

unpaved: 1,824 km

note: there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25% (1995) (1995)
Imports 181 million kWh (2000)
Imports $614.5 million c.i.f. (2000)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners Russia 34%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 9%, US 4% (2000)
Independence 11 July 1921 (from China)
Industrial production growth rate 2.4% (2000 est.)
Industries construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages, processing of animal products
Infant mortality rate 51.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC, CP (provisional), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2001)
Irrigated land 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president)
Labor force 1.4 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation primarily herding/agricultural
Land boundaries total: 8,162 km

border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km
Land use arable land: 0.84%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.16% (1998 est.)
Languages Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Legal system blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.62 years

male: 62.47 years

female: 66.87 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2000)
Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime
Military expenditures - dollar figure $24.3 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.5% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 772,619 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 501,493 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 30,230 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Nationality noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian
Natural hazards dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions
Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN]

note: the MPRP is the ruling party
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,694,432 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 36% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.48% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios 155,900 (1999)
Railways 1,815 km

broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001)
Religions Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Telephones - main lines in use 104,100 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 110,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999)
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Total fertility rate 2.37 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (2000)
Waterways 400 km (1999)
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