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Mongolia (2004)

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Mongolia 2004 year

Administrative divisions 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 415,735; female 400,560)

15-64 years: 66.7% (male 916,445; female 918,235)

65 years and over: 3.6% (male 43,205; female 57,134) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Airports 36 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2003 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 25

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 5 (2003 est.)
Area total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
Birth rate 21.44 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $387 million

expenditures: $428 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001 est.)
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Climate desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 12 February 1992
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Mongolia

local long form: none

local short form: Mongol Uls

former: Outer Mongolia
Currency togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Death rate 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $885 million (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ

embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002

telephone: [976] (11) 329095

FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD

chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117

FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $332 million (2003 est.)
Economy - overview Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) government embraced free-market economics, eased price controls, liberalized domestic and international trade, and attempted to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, was anxious to improve the investment climate; it also had to deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth. Despite drought problems in 2002, GDP rose 4.0%, followed by a solid 5.0% increase in 2003. The first applications under the land privatization law have been marked by a number of disputes over particular sites. Russia claims Mongolia owes it $11 billion from the Soviet period; any settlement could substantially increase Mongolia's foreign debt burden.
Electricity - consumption 2.194 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 25 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 196 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 2.225 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m

highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Environment - current issues limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Exchange rates togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,171 (2003), 1,110.31 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,021.87 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997)

head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 20 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 September 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) in consultation with the president

elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held in May 2005); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural; election last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)

election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president in 2001; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Tsakkhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Exports 25 million kWh (2001)
Exports $524 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners China 46.1%, US 23.2%, Russia 6.7%, Singapore 5.7%, Australia 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.882 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 20.6%

industry: 21.4%

services: 58% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Heliports 2 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 49,250 km

paved: 1,724 km

unpaved: 47,526 km (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.1%

highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Imports 196 million kWh (2001)
Imports $691 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners Russia 33.1%, China 21.5%, South Korea 8.5%, Japan 7.9%, Germany 4.7% (2003)
Independence 11 July 1921 (from China)
Industrial production growth rate 4.1% (2002 est.)
Industries construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products
Infant mortality rate total: 55.45 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 58.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 51.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.5% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Labor force 1.4 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation herding/agriculture 46%, manufacturing 6%, trade 10.3%, public sector 4.7%, other/unemployed 33% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 8,220 km

border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Land use arable land: 0.77%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 99.23% (2001)
Languages Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Legal system blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms

elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following the June 2004 election, two seats in dispute and unoccupied
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.17 years

male: 61.97 years

female: 66.48 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.8%

male: 98%

female: 97.5% (2002)
Location Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT

by type: bulk 4, cargo 53, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: Belize 1, Cambodia 1, China 4, Cuba 1, Hong Kong 2, Indonesia 1, Japan 1, North Korea 1, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Romania 1, Russia 14, Singapore 13, Syria 4, Thailand 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1, United States 3, Vietnam 4 (2004 est.)
Military branches Mongolian People's Army (comprising Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces), Border Guards, Internal Security Forces, Construction Corps Forces, Civil Defense Authority
Military expenditures - dollar figure $23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 818,977 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 530,594 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 33,718 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Nationality noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian
Natural hazards dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Natural resources oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [R. GONCHIKDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIKHAN]

note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,751,314 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 33% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 1.43% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Railways 1,810 km

broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Religions Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons

domestic: NA

international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Telephones - main lines in use 128,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 216,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 9 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Terrain vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Total fertility rate 2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.6% (2001)
Waterways 580 km

note: only waterway in operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
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