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Mongolia (2004)

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Mongolia 2004 roku

 Mongolia
Podzial administracyjny 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 415,735; female 400,560)


15-64 years: 66.7% (male 916,445; female 918,235)


65 years and over: 3.6% (male 43,205; female 57,134) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Lotniska 36 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 25


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 11


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 5 (2003 est.)
Terytorium total: 1,564,116 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne The Mongols gained fame w the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart w the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence w 1921 z Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed w 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP w a national election w 1996. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power w 2000 and produced a coalition government w 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.44 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $387 million


expenditures: $428 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2001 est.)
Stolica Ulaanbaatar
Klimat desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 12 luty 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Mongolia


local long form: none


local short form: Mongol Uls


former: Outer Mongolia
Waluta togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $885 million (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ


embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [976] (11) 329095


FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD


chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117


FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $332 million (2003 est.)
Ekonomia Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account dla a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Produkt krajowy brutto, disappeared almost overnight w 1990-91 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) government embraced free-market economics, eased price controls, liberalized domestic and international trade, and attempted to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC. Economic growth picked up w 1997-99 after stalling w 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines w world prices of copper and cashmere. In sierpien and wrzesien 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Rosjan ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable w this sector. Mongolia joined the Swiat Trade Organization (WTrO) w 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the Consultative Group Meeting, held w Ulaanbaatar w czerwiec 1999. The MPRP government, elected w lipiec 2000, was anxious to improve the investment climate; it also had to deal z a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices dla Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture w early 2000 and 2001 restrained real Produkt krajowy brutto growth. Despite drought problems w 2002, Produkt krajowy brutto rose 4.0%, followed by a solid 5.0% increase w 2003. The first applications under the land privatization law have been marked by a number of disputes over particular sites. Rosja claims Mongolia owes it $11 billion from the Soviet period; any settlement could substantially increase Mongolia's foreign debt burden.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.194 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 25 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 196 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.225 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m


highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy limited natural fresh water resources w some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal w power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air w Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Rosjan) 0.1% (2000)
Kurs waluty togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,171 (2003), 1,110.31 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,021.87 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 czerwiec 1997)


head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ (since 20 sierpien 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 wrzesien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) w consultation z the president


elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented w State Great Hural and elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 20 maj 2001 (next to be held w maj 2005); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural; election last held 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008)


election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president w 2001; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Tsakkhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Eksport 25 million kWh (2001)
Eksport $524 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Eksport - partnerzy Chiny 46.1%, US 23.2%, Rosja 6.7%, Singapur 5.7%, Australia 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band w yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation dla fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $4.882 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 20.6%


industry: 21.4%


services: 58% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,800 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; strategic location between Chiny and Rosja
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 49,250 km


paved: 1,724 km


unpaved: 47,526 km (2003)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%


highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Import 196 million kWh (2001)
Import $691 million c.i.f. (2002 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Import - partnerzy Rosja 33.1%, Chiny 21.5%, South Korea 8.5%, Japonia 7.9%, Niemcy 4.7% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 11 lipiec 1921 (from Chiny)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.1% (2002 est.)
Przemysl construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 55.45 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 58.97 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 51.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 1.5% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 840 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (serves as appeals court dla people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Sila robocza 1.4 million (2001)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki herding/agriculture 46%, manufacturing 6%, trade 10.3%, public sector 4.7%, other/unemployed 33% (2001)
Granica total: 8,220 km


border countries: Chiny 4,677 km, Rosja 3,543 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0.77%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 99.23% (2001)
Jezyki Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Rosjan (1999)
System prawny blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms


elections: last held 27 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008)


election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following the czerwiec 2004 election, two seats w dispute and unoccupied
Zywotnosc total population: 64.17 years


male: 61.97 years


female: 66.48 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.8%


male: 98%


female: 97.5% (2002)
Lokalizacja Northern Asia, between Chiny and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT


by type: bulk 4, cargo 53, chemical tanker 1, container 2, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, specialized tanker 1


foreign-owned: Belize 1, Kambodza 1, Chiny 4, Kuba 1, Hong Kong 2, Indonezja 1, Japonia 1, North Korea 1, Liban 1, Malezja 1, Malta 1, Wyspy Marshalla 5, Moldawia 1, Panama 3, Rumunia 1, Rosja 14, Singapur 13, Syria 4, Tajlandia 1, Turcja 1, Ukraina 1, Stany Zjednoczone 3, Wietnam 4 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Mongolian People's Army (comprising Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces), Border Guards, Internal Security Forces, Construction Corps Forces, Civil Defense Authority
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $23.1 million (FY02)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.2% (FY02)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 818,977 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 530,594 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 33,718 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day/Revolution Day, 11 lipiec (1921)
Narodowosc noun: Mongolian(s)


adjective: Mongolian
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Surowce naturalne oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [R. GONCHIKDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIKHAN]


note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) w 2003 and z CWRP contested czerwiec 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition w grudzien 2004
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 2,751,314 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 33% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.43% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie none
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001)
Linie kolejowe 1,810 km


broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Religie Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones dla each thousand persons


domestic: NA


international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski Region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 128,000 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 216,000 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 9 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains w west and southwest; Gobi Desert w south-central
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.27 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4.6% (2001)
Drogi wodne 580 km


note: only waterway w operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze w winter, are open from maj to wrzesien (2004)
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