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Gibraltar (2008)

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Gibraltar 2008 year

Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of the UK)
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.2% (male 2,460/female 2,343)

15-64 years: 66.3% (male 9,470/female 9,070)

65 years and over: 16.5% (male 2,090/female 2,534) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products none
Airports 1 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 6.5 sq km

land: 6.5 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative a little less than one half the size of Rhode Island
Background Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since the referendum, tripartite talks on other issues have been held with Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar, and in September 2006 a three-way agreement was signed. Spain agreed to remove restrictions on air movements, to speed up customs procedures, to implement international telephone dialing, and to allow mobile roaming agreements. Britain agreed to pay increased pensions to Spaniards who had been employed in Gibraltar before the border closed. Spain will be allowed to open a cultural institute from which the Spanish flag will fly. A new non-colonial constitution came into effect in 2007, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
Birth rate 10.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $455.1 million

expenditures: $423.6 million (2005 est.)
Capital name: Gibraltar

geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Coastline 12 km
Constitution 5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Gibraltar
Death rate 9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Dependency status overseas territory of the UK
Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of the UK)
Disputes - international in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, the shipping sector, and tourism each contribute 25%-30% of GDP. Telecommunications accounts for another 10%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
Electricity - consumption 141 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 141 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
Environment - current issues limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
Ethnic groups Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
Exchange rates Gibraltar pounds per US dollar - 0.4993 (2007), 0.5434 (2006), 0.5504 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003)

note: the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Robert FULTON (since 27 October 2006)

head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $271 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
Exports - partners UK 30.8%, Spain 22.7%, Germany 13.7%, Turkmenistan 10.4%, Switzerland 8.3%, Italy 6.7% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
GDP - real growth rate 7% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 36 08 N, 5 21 W
Geography - note strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $2.967 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 24,350 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
Imports - partners Spain 23.4%, Russia 12.3%, Italy 12%, UK 9%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 6.8%, US 4.7% (2006)
Independence none (overseas territory of the UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Infant mortality rate total: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.54 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.9% (2005)
International organization participation Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Labor force 12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: negligible

industry: 40%

services: 60% (2001)
Land boundaries total: 1.2 km

border countries: Spain 1.2 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2005)
Languages English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Legal system the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the Speaker appointed by Parliament; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than October 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.93 years

male: 77.05 years

female: 82.96 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: above 80%

male: NA

female: NA
Location Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm
Merchant marine total: 216 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,422,155 GRT/1,866,572 DWT

by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 5, cargo 117, chemical tanker 39, container 31, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 7, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 201 (Belgium 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 9, Finland 3, France 1, Germany 117, Greece 8, Iceland 1, Italy 1, Netherlands 11, Norway 27, Sweden 10, UAE 2, UK 3)

registered in other countries: 7 (Liberia 7) (2007)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
Military branches Royal Gibraltar Regiment
National holiday National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or go with Spain
Nationality noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources none
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
Population 27,967 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.129% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.044 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.825 male(s)/female

total population: 1.005 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more
Telephone system general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities

domestic: automatic exchange facilities

international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 24,512 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9,797 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Total fertility rate 1.65 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 3% (2005 est.)
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