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Ekwador (2008)

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Ekwador 2008 roku

 Ekwador
Podzial administracyjny 24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.6% (male 2,282,319/female 2,196,685)


15-64 years: 62.3% (male 4,271,848/female 4,301,149)


65 years and over: 5.1% (male 330,302/female 373,377) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Lotniska 406 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 104


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 17


914 to 1,523 m: 26


under 914 m: 54 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 302


914 to 1,523 m: 34


under 914 m: 268 (2007)
Terytorium total: 283,560 sq km


land: 276,840 sq km


water: 6,720 sq km


note: includes Galapagos Islands
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Nevada
Tlo historyczne What is now Ekwador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest w 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government w 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada w 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Kolumbia), Wenezuela, and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Kolumbia. When Quito withdrew w 1830, the traditional name was changed w favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942, Ekwador lost territories w a series of conflicts z its neighbors. A border war z Peru that flared w 1995 was resolved w 1999. Although Ekwador marked 25 years of civilian governance w 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests w Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ekwador's last three democratically elected Presidents.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.91 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $13.1 billion


expenditures: planned $11.3 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Quito


geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical w Amazonian jungle lowlands
Linia brzegowa 2,237 km
Konstytucja 10 sierpien 1998
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Ekwador


conventional short form: Ekwador


local long form: Republica del Ekwador


local short form: Ekwador
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $17.56 billion (31 pazdziernik 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Linda L. JEWELL


embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito


mailing address: APO AA 34039


telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890


FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052


consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga


chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200


FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia penetrate across Ekwador's shared border, which thousands of Kolumbians also cross to escape the violence w their home country
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $209.5 million (2005)
Ekonomia Ekwador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted dla more than half of the country's export earnings and one-fourth of public sector revenues w recent years. In 1999/2000, Ekwador suffered a severe economic crisis, z Produkt krajowy brutto contracted by more than 6%, z a significant increase w poverty. The banking system also collapsed, and Ekwador defaulted on its external debt later that year. In marzec 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided dla the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned w the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-2006 the economy grew 5.5%, the highest five-year average w 25 years. The poverty rate declined but remained high at 38% w 2006. In 2006 the government of Alfredo PALACIO (2005-07) seized the assets of Occidental Petroleum dla alleged contract violations and imposed a windfall revenue tax on foreign oil companies, leading to the suspension of free trade negotiations z the US. These measures, combined z chronic underinvestment w the state oil company, Petroecuador, led to a drop w petroleum production w 2007. PALACIO's successor, Rafael CORREA, raised the specter of debt default - but Ekwador has paid its debt on time. He also decreed a higher windfall revenue tax on private oil companies, then sought to renegotiate their contracts to overcome the debilitating effect of the tax. This generated economic uncertainty; private investment has dropped and economic growth has slowed significantly.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.855 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 16 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.723 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 12.94 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes w ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Kurs waluty 1 the US dollar is used; the sucre was eliminated w 2000
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 styczen 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 styczen 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 styczen 2007); Vice President Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 pazdziernik 2006 z a runoff election on 26 listopad 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010)


election results: Rafael CORREA Delgado elected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 56.7%; Alvaro NOBOA 43.3%
Eksport 16 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $13.3 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 420,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, hemp, wood, fish
Eksport - partnerzy US 53.6%, Peru 8.2%, Kolumbia 5.6%, Chile 4.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red z the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Kolumbia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 10%


industry: 35%


services: 54% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 2 00 S, 77 30 W
Polozenie geograficzne Cotopaxi w Andes is highest active volcano w world
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 35%


note: data dla urban households only (pazdziernik 2006)
Narkotyki significant transit country dla cocaine originating w Kolumbia and Peru, z over half of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ekwadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used w production of illicit narcotics; attractive location dla cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Kolumbian insurgents
Import 1.723 billion kWh (2005)
Import $13 billion (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 44,680 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods
Import - partnerzy US 23.1%, Kolumbia 13.3%, Brazylia 7.3%, Panama 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 24 maj 1822 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.4% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 26.5 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 17.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 8,650 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Konstytucja, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; w grudzien 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Sila robocza 4.55 million (urban) (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 8%


industry: 24%


services: 68% (2001)
Granica total: 2,010 km


border countries: Kolumbia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 5.71%


permanent crops: 4.81%


other: 89.48% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 15 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRIAN 28; PSP 24; PSC 13; ID 7; PRE 6; MUPP-NP 6; RED 5; UDC 5; other 6; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting w frequent changes w the numbers of seats held by the various parties; as of 29 listopad 2007, Congress is on indefinite recess
Zywotnosc total population: 76.62 years


male: 73.74 years


female: 79.63 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 91%


male: 92.3%


female: 89.7% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the Ocean Spokojny at the Equator, between Kolumbia and Peru
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm


continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Flota handlowa total: 33 ships (1000 GRT or over) 190,931 GRT/306,280 DWT


by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 22, specialized tanker 1


foreign-owned: 2 (Filipiny 1, US 1)


registered w other countries: 3 (Chiny 1, Panama 2) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day (independence of Quito), 10 sierpien (1809)
Narodowosc noun: Ekwadorian(s)


adjective: Ekwadorian
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -2.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi extra heavy crude oil 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,389 km; refined products 1,185 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alianza PAIS Movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Christian Democratic Union or UDC [Diego ORDONEZ Guerrero]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP; Democratic Left or ID [Andres PAEZ Benalcazar]; Ethical and Democratic Network or RED [Leon ROLDOS]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Ciro GUZMAN Aldaz]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Gustavo AYALA Cruz]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ekwador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ekwador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
Ludnosc 13,755,680 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 38.3% (2006)
Przyrost naturalny 1.554% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 966 km


narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.885 male(s)/female


total population: 1.002 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal, compulsory dla literate persons ages 18-65, optional dla other eligible voters
System telefoniczny general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded


domestic: fixed-line services provided by three state-owned enterprises; plans to transfer the state-owned operators to private ownership have repeatedly failed; fixed-line density stands at about 13 per 100 persons; mobile cellular use has surged and has a subscribership of nearly 65 per 100 persons


international: country code - 593; landing point dla the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable that provides links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Kolumbia, Wenezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Wyspy Dziewicze w the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.754 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 8.485 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2000)
Uksztaltowanie terenu coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.63 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.8% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2006)
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