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Samoa (2003)

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Samoa 2003 year

Administrative divisions 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Age structure 0-14 years: 29.4% (male 26,613; female 25,715)

15-64 years: 64.6% (male 72,135; female 42,903)

65 years and over: 6.1% (male 4,980; female 5,827) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa
Airports 4 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 2,944 sq km

land: 2,934 sq km

water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Background New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997.
Birth rate 15.41 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $105 million

expenditures: $119 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001/2002)
Capital Apia
Climate tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season (May to October)
Coastline 403 km
Constitution 1 January 1962
Country name conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa

conventional short form: Samoa

former: Western Samoa
Currency tala (SAT)
Death rate 6.41 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $197 million (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: the Ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Samoa

embassy: Vailima

mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Apia

telephone: [685] 21631/22696

FAX: [685] 22030
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Feturi ELISAIA

chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196, 6197

FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797
Disputes - international none; note - some EEZ demarcations, including the one with American Samoa, are undefined
Economic aid - recipient $42.9 million (1995)
Economy - overview The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, and agriculture and fishing. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, and copra. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. The decline of fish stocks in the area is a continuing problem. Tourism is an expanding sector, accounting for 25% of GDP; about 88,000 tourists visited the islands in 2001. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline, meantime protecting the environment. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. Foreign reserves are in a relatively healthy state, the external debt is stable, and inflation is low.
Electricity - consumption 97.74 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 105.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 58%

hydro: 42%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mauga Silisili 1,857 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians 7% (persons of European and Polynesian blood), Europeans 0.4%
Exchange rates tala per US dollar - 3.37 (2002), 3.48 (2001), 3.29 (2000), 3.01 (1999), 2.95 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA (cochief of state from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole chief of state 5 April 1963)

head of government: Prime Minister Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1996); note - TUILA'EPA served as deputy prime minister from 1992 until he assumed the prime ministership in 1996, when former Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana resigned in poor health; TUILA'EPA was confirmed as prime minister after TOFILAU died; the post of deputy prime minister is currently vacant

cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members, appointed by the chief of state with the prime minister's advice

elections: upon the death of Chief Tanumafili II MALIETOA, a new chief of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $15.5 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities fish, coconut oil and cream, copra, taro, automotive parts, garments, beer
Exports - partners Australia 66.1%, US 10%, Japan 3.7% (2002)
Fiscal year June 1 - May 31
Flag description red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation
GDP purchasing power parity - $1 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 14%

industry: 23%

services: 63% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 35 S, 172 20 W
Geography - note occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
Highways total: 790 km

paved: 332 km

unpaved: 458 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $130.1 million f.o.b. (2001)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs
Imports - partners New Zealand 23.3%, Fiji 20.2%, Australia 15.7%, Japan 13.1%, Taiwan 6.4%, US 4.2% (2002)
Independence 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 2.8% (2000)
Industries food processing, building materials, auto parts
Infant mortality rate total: 29.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 34.98 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 24.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, OPCW, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Land and Titles Court
Labor force 90,000 (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 19.43%

permanent crops: 23.67%

other: 56.9% (1998 est.)
Languages Samoan (Polynesian), English
Legal system based on English common law and local customs; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats - 47 elected by voters affiliated with traditional village-based electoral districts, 2 elected by independent, mostly Eurasian, voters who cannot, (or choose not to) establish a village affiliation; only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Fono; members serve five-year terms)

elections: election last held 3 March 2001 (next election to be held not later than March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HRPP 30, SNDP 13, independents 6
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.11 years

male: 67.35 years

female: 73 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.7%

male: 99.6%

female: 99.7% (2003 est.)
Location Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) 7,091 GRT/8,127 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)
Military - note Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship
Military branches no regular armed services; Samoa Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
National holiday Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship, 1 June 1962 is the date that independence is celebrated
Nationality noun: Samoan(s)

adjective: Samoan
Natural hazards occasional typhoons; active volcanism
Natural resources hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -11.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party [leader NA]; Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA, chairman]; Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua MAIMOANA]; Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [LE MAMEA Ropati, chairman] (opposition); Samoa National Party [FETU Tiatia, party secretary]; Samoan Progressive Conservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]; Samoan United Independents Party or SUIP [Dr. Saleimoa VAAI]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 178,173 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate -0.27% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian 99.7% (about one-half of population associated with the London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Latter-Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.68 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.39 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 8,183 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,545 (February 1998)
Television broadcast stations 2 (2002)
Terrain narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
Total fertility rate 3.21 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%; note - substantial underemployment
Waterways none
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