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Moldova (2008)

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Moldova 2008 year

Administrative divisions 32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.5% (male 365,733/female 347,305)

15-64 years: 72.6% (male 1,520,094/female 1,616,014)

65 years and over: 10.9% (male 175,113/female 296,231) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Airports 10 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 33,843 sq km

land: 33,371 sq km

water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Maryland
Background Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Birth rate 10.88 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.764 billion

expenditures: $1.771 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Chisinau (Kishinev)

note: pronounced kee-shee-now

geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate moderate winters, warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: Moldova

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 10.85 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2.774 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael D. KIRBY

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300

FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Disputes - international Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
Economic aid - recipient $191.8 million (2005)
Economy - overview Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas in disputes over pricing. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, slowed GDP growth in 2006. However, in 2007 growth returned to the 6% level Moldova had achieved in 2000-05, boosted by Russia's partial removal of the bans, solid fixed capital investment, and strong domestic demand driven by remittances from abroad. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences and increased exports to Russia will encourage higher growth rates in 2008, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. Also, the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region continues to be a drag on the Moldovan economy.
Electricity - consumption 5.551 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 220 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 3.361 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 3.881 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dniester River 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Environment - current issues heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 12.177 (2007), 13.131 (2006), 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001; cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001

election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Exports 220 million kWh (2005)
Exports $1.43 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 31.69 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners Russia 22.8%, Germany 12.2%, Italy 11.1%, Romania 9.7%, Ukraine 9.6%, Belarus 5.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18.4%

industry: 22.4%

services: 59.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.2%

highest 10%: 26.4% (2003)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
Imports 3.361 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $3.59 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 2.35 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 14,200 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners Russia 20.8%, Ukraine 16.9%, Romania 13.4%, Germany 8.7%, Italy 6.1%, Poland 4.4% (2006)
Independence 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 6% (2007 est.)
Industries sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 13.88 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 15.35 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 12.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 12.5% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 3,000 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Labor force 1.333 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 40.7%

industry: 12.1%

services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,389 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Land use arable land: 54.52%

permanent crops: 8.81%

other: 36.67% (2005)
Languages Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Legal system based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.2 years

male: 66.51 years

female: 74.11 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.7%

female: 98.6% (2005 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,668 GRT/17,585 DWT

by type: cargo 8

foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2007)
Military branches National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Nationality noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan
Natural hazards landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Natural resources lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Net migration rate -1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 1,980 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladmir FILAT]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party for Social Democracy or PDSM [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,320,490 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 29.5% (2005)
Population growth rate -0.11% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)
Railways total: 1,138 km

broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religions Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.053 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.591 male(s)/female

total population: 0.912 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way

domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik (2006)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.018 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.358 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 40 (2006)
Terrain rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Total fertility rate 1.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.1%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2007 est.)
Waterways 424 km (on Dniester and Prut rivers) (2007)
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