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Moldova (2001)

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Moldova 2001 year

Administrative divisions 10 juletule (singular - juletul), 1 municipality*, and 1 autonomous territorial unit**; Balti, Cahul, Chisinau, Chisinau*, Dubasari, Edinet, Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca, Tighina, Ungheni
Age structure 0-14 years:
22.44% (male 506,303; female 488,311)

15-64 years:
67.62% (male 1,437,492; female 1,559,090)

65 years and over:
9.94% (male 163,473; female 276,901) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Airports 30 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
14 (2000 est.)
Area total:
33,843 sq km

33,371 sq km

472 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Maryland
Background Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe and plagued by a moribund economy, in 2001 Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist as its president.
Birth rate 13.35 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$536 million

$594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Chisinau
Climate moderate winters, warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Moldova

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica Moldova

local short form:

Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Currency Moldovan leu (MDL)
Death rate 12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $900 million (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Rudolf Vilem PERINA

Strada Alexei Mateevicie, #103, Chisinau 2009

mailing address:
use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080

[373] (2) 23-37-72

[373] (2) 23-30-44
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Ceslav CIOBANU

2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 667-1130

[1] (202) 667-1204
Disputes - international separatist Transnistria region, comprising the area between the Nistru (Dniester) River and Ukraine, has its own de facto government, dominated by Moldovan Slavs
Economic aid - recipient $100.8 million (1995); note - $547 million from the IMF and World Bank (1992-99)
Economy - overview Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Yet these efforts could not offset the impact of political and economic difficulties, both internal and regional. In 1998, the economic troubles of Russia, by far Moldova's leading trade partner, were a major cause of the 8.6% drop in GDP. In 1999, GDP fell again, by 4.4%, the fifth drop in the past seven years; exports were down, and energy supplies continued to be erratic. GDP declined slightly in 2000, with a serious drought hurting agriculture. Growth should turn positive in 2001.
Electricity - consumption 5.78 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1.916 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 4.155 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Nistru (Dnister) River 2 m

highest point:
Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Environment - current issues heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Gagauz 3.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, other 1.7% (1989 est.)

internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 12.3728 (January 2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997), 4.6045 (1996); note - lei is the plural form of leu
Executive branch chief of state:
President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government:
Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), three Deputy Prime Ministers: Valerian CRISTEA, Andrei CUCU, and Dmitri TODOROGLO (all since 19 April 2001)

selected by prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament

president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001; presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections (moved up a year to February 2001); according to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with Parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated on 15 April 2001, cabinet received vote of confidence on 19 April 2001

election results:
Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV elected Prime Minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $500 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities foodstuffs 57%, wine, tobacco; textiles and footwear, machinery (1999)
Exports - partners Russia 41%, Romania 9%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 7%, Italy, Belarus (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
GDP purchasing power parity - $11.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


34% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -1.5% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
20,000 km

13,900 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

6,100 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
25.8% (1992)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US
Imports 1.916 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $761 million (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities mineral products and fuel 38%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (1999)
Imports - partners Russia 21%, Romania 16%, Ukraine 14%, Germany 12%, Italy 6%, Belarus (1999)
Independence 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Industries food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Infant mortality rate 42.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 32% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (1999)
Irrigated land 3,110 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Labor force 1.7 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 40%, industry 14%, other 46% (1998)
Land boundaries total:
1,389 km

border countries:
Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

7% (1993 est.)
Languages Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Legal system based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs, as well as independent candidates, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11
Life expectancy at birth total population:
64.6 years

60.15 years

69.26 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


94% (1989 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Map references Commonwealth of Independent States
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $6 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,164,018 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
921,210 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
42,268 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Natural resources lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land
Net migration rate -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 310 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,431,570 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 75% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 0.05% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 3.22 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,328 km

broad gauge:
1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)
Religions Eastern Orthodox 98.5%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.59 male(s)/female

total population:
0.91 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way

new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Telephones - main lines in use 627,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,200 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Total fertility rate 1.67 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 1.9% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (November 2000)
Waterways 424 km (1994)
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