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Moldova (2005)

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Moldova 2005 year

Administrative divisions 32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

counties: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Age structure 0-14 years: 20.2% (male 459,452/female 442,725)

15-64 years: 69.5% (male 1,489,813/female 1,606,202)

65 years and over: 10.3% (male 169,038/female 288,191) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Airports 23 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 11 (2004 est.)
Area total: 33,843 sq km

land: 33,371 sq km

water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Maryland
Background Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Birth rate 15.27 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $648.1 million

expenditures: $634.8 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Chisinau
Climate moderate winters, warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: none

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 12.79 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Heather M. HODGES

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [373] (22) 408-300

FAX: [373] (22) 23-30-44
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mihail MANOLI

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Disputes - international Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision
Economic aid - recipient $100 million (2000)
Economy - overview Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort after independence, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth of 2.1% in 2000, 6.1% in 2001, 7.2% in 2002, 6.3% in 2003, and 6.8% in 2004. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
Electricity - consumption 4.605 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 1 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 3.876 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dniester River 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Environment - current issues heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2% (1989 est.)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002), 12.865 (2001), 12.434 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since 29 January 2002)

cabinet: selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held NA 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001

election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $1.03 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners Russia 35.8%, Italy 13.9%, Romania 10%, Germany 7.3%, Ukraine 6.6%, Belarus 6%, US 4.6% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 22.4%

industry: 24.8%

services: 52.8% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.8% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Highways total: 12,719 km

paved: 10,977 km

unpaved: 1,742 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
Imports 1 billion kWh (2002)
Imports $1.83 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners Ukraine 24.6%, Russia 12.2%, Romania 9.3%, Germany 8.5%, Italy 7.4% (2004)
Independence 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 17% (2003 est.)
Industries food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 40.42 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 43.11 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 37.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.5% (2004 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 3,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Labor force 1.36 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46% (1998)
Land boundaries total: 1,389 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Land use arable land: 55.3%

permanent crops: 10.79%

other: 33.91% (2001)
Languages Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Legal system based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held NA 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.18 years

male: 61.12 years

female: 69.43 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.6%

female: 98.7% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,636 GRT/1,088 DWT

by type: cargo 2 (2005)
Military branches National Army: Ground Forces, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $8.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (FY02)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Nationality noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan
Natural hazards landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Natural resources lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Net migration rate -0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 606 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Modova Bloc [Serafim URECHEANU] includes: Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV], Our Moldova Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS, Serafim URECHEANU], Social Liberal Party [Oleg SEREBRIAN]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,455,421 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.22% (2005 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Railways total: 1,138 km

broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Religions Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some effort to modernize is under way

domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Telephones - main lines in use 706,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 338,200 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Total fertility rate 1.81 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)
Waterways 424 km (2004)
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