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Moldova (2002)

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Moldova 2002 year

Administrative divisions 9 counties (judetele, singular - judetul), 1 municipality* (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit** (unitate teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit*** (unitate teritoriala); Balti, Cahul, Chisinau, Chisinau*, Edinet, Gagauzia**, Lapusna, Orhei, Soroca, Stinga Nistrului***, Tighina, Ungheni
Age structure 0-14 years: 21.7% (male 490,414; female 472,912)

15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,451,962; female 1,572,561)

65 years and over: 10.1% (male 165,860; female 280,838) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Airports 30 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 14 (2002)
Area total: 33,843 sq km

land: 33,371 sq km

water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Maryland
Background Formerly ruled by Romania, Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Birth rate 13.82 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $536 million

expenditures: $594 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Chisinau
Climate moderate winters, warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 28 July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: none

former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia
Currency Moldovan leu (MDL)
Death rate 12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.3 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela Hyde SMITH

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: use embassy street address; pouch address - American Embassy Chisinau, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7080

telephone: [373] (2) 23-37-72

FAX: [373] (2) 23-30-44
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mihai MANOLI

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Disputes - international Moldovan difficulties with break-away Transnistria region inhibit establishment of a joint customs regime with Ukraine to curtail smuggling, arms transfers, and other illegal activities
Economic aid - recipient $100 million (2000)
Economy - overview Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2002, in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. Further reforms are in doubt because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the scepticism of foreign investors.
Electricity - consumption 3.655 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 630 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 3.317 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90%

hydro: 10%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dniester River 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Environment - current issues heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Ethnic groups Moldovan/Romanian 64.5%, Ukrainian 13.8%, Russian 13%, Jewish 1.5%, Bulgarian 2%, Gagauz and other 5.2% (1989 est.)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 12.8579 (October 2001), 12.4342 (2000), 10.5158 (1999), 5.3707 (1998), 4.6236 (1997); note - lei is the plural form of leu
Executive branch chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Vasile IOVV (since NA 2002), Deputy Prime Minister Stefan ODAGIU (since NA 2002)

cabinet: selected by prime minister, subject to approval of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 4 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2005); note - presidential elections were scheduled for December 2000, but in July 2000, Parliament canceled direct, popular elections; Parliament's failure to chose a new president in December 2000 led to early parliamentary elections in February 2001; prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; note - within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001

election results: Vladimir VORONIN elected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 71, Dumitru BRAGHIS 15, Valerian CHRISTEA 3; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Exports 630 million kWh (2000)
Exports $590 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities foodstuffs, textiles, and machinery (2001)
Exports - partners Russia 43%, Ukraine 10.1%, Italy 8.1%, Germany 7.2%, Romania 6.7% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
GDP purchasing power parity - $11 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 28%

industry: 23%

services: 49% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Highways total: 20,000 km

paved: 13,900 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 6,100 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 31% (1997)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
Imports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $980 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities mineral products and fuel 32%, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners Ukraine 18%, Russia 15.1%, Romania 13.1%, Germany 10.5%, Italy 6.4% (2001)
Independence 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 9% (2002 est.)
Industries food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, sugar, vegetable oil, shoes, textiles
Infant mortality rate 42.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.5% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (1999)
Irrigated land 3,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Labor force 1.7 million (1998) (1998)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 40%, industry 14%, services 46% (1998) (1998)
Land boundaries total: 1,389 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Land use arable land: 54.08%

permanent crops: 12.1%

other: 33.82% (1998 est.)
Languages Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian (official), Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Legal system based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs, as well as independent candidates, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - PCM 50.1%, Braghis Alliance 13.4%, PPCD 8.2%, other parties 28.3%; seats by party - PCM 71, Braghis Alliance 19, PPCD 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.74 years

male: 60.39 years

female: 69.31 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 99%

female: 94% (1989 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Ground Forces (includes Air and Air Defense Forces), Republic Security Forces (includes paramilitary Internal Troops and Border Troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $6 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,172,714 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 929,316 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 42,268 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Nationality noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan
Natural hazards landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Natural resources lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Net migration rate -0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 310 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Braghis Alliance [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Communist Party or PCM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Popular Christian Democratic Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Social Democratic Union (composed of Braghis Alliance and the Democratic Party of Moldova) [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,434,547 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.09% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 3.22 million (1997)
Railways total: 1,328 km

broad gauge: 1,328 km 1.520-m gauge (2001)
Religions Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau, some effort to modernize is under way

domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

international: service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Telephones - main lines in use 627,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,200 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Total fertility rate 1.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 8% (roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad) (2002 est.)
Waterways 424 km (1994)
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