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Moldova (2006)

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Moldova 2006 year

Administrative divisions 32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni

municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau

autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia

territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Age structure 0-14 years: 20% (male 455,673/female 438,934)

15-64 years: 69.7% (male 1,498,078/female 1,613,489)

65 years and over: 10.3% (male 170,456/female 290,076) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Airports 12 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Area total: 33,843 sq km

land: 33,371 sq km

water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Maryland
Background Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Birth rate 15.7 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.069 billion

expenditures: $1.065 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Chisinau (Kishinev)

geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 50 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate moderate winters, warm summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Moldova

conventional short form: Moldova

local long form: Republica Moldova

local short form: Moldova

former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $1.986 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambasador Michael D. KIRBY

embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300

FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA

chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Disputes - international Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region which remains under OSCE supervision
Economic aid - recipient $100 million (2000)
Economy - overview Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort after independence, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth in 2000, and has remained at or above 6% every year since. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
Electricity - consumption 3.036 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 300 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 600 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 2.942 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Dniester River 2 m

highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Environment - current issues heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)

note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002), 12.865 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001

election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Exports 300 million kWh (2003)
Exports $1.04 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners Russia 32.9%, Italy 12.7%, Romania 10.6%, Ukraine 9.5%, Belarus 6.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 21.3%

industry: 23.3%

services: 55.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.1% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
Illicit drugs limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
Imports 600 million kWh (2003)
Imports $2.23 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners Ukraine 20.9%, Russia 11.7%, Romania 11.2%, Germany 8.3%, Italy 6.6%, Turkey 4.1% (2005)
Independence 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 17% (2003 est.)
Industries sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 38.38 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 41.44 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 35.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.9% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 3,000 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Labor force 1.34 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 40%

industry: 14%

services: 46% (1998)
Land boundaries total: 1,389 km

border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Land use arable land: 54.52%

permanent crops: 8.81%

other: 36.67% (2005)
Languages Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Legal system based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.65 years

male: 61.61 years

female: 69.88 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.6%

female: 98.7% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,831 GRT/15,003 DWT

by type: cargo 7

foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2006)
Military branches National Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $8.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.4% (FY02)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Nationality noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan
Natural hazards landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Natural resources lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Net migration rate -0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 606 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Braghis Faction [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Moldova Bloc (comprised of the AMN, Democratic Party, and PSL); Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEANU]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,466,706 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.28% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Railways total: 1,138 km

broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge

standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Religions Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way

domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Telephones - main lines in use 929,400 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.09 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Total fertility rate 1.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 8%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2002 est.)
Waterways 424 km (on Dniester River) (2005)
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