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Honduras (2008)

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Honduras 2008 year

Administrative divisions 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.3% (male 1,500,949/female 1,439,084)

15-64 years: 57.2% (male 2,142,953/female 2,140,432)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 117,774/female 142,571) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster; corn, African palm
Airports 112 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 100

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 83 (2007)
Area total: 112,090 sq km

land: 111,890 sq km

water: 200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Tennessee
Background Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage.
Birth rate 27.59 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.089 billion

expenditures: $2.357 billion; including capital expenditures of $106 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Tegucigalpa

geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W

time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November; note - these dates become effective in 2007
Climate subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Coastline 820 km
Constitution 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Honduras

conventional short form: Honduras

local long form: Republica de Honduras

local short form: Honduras
Death rate 5.32 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $3.871 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles A. FORD

embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa

mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa

telephone: [504] 236-9320, 238-5114

FAX: [504] 236-9037
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto FLORES BERMUDEZ

chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702

FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Francisco

honorary consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, Jacksonville
Disputes - international International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum; memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties in Nicaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Colombia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims in the western Caribbean Sea - final public hearings are scheduled for 2007
Economic aid - recipient $680.8 million (2005)
Economy - overview Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America and one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere, with an extraordinarily unequal distribution of income and massive unemployment, is banking on expanded trade under the US-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and on debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Despite improvements in tax collections, the government's fiscal deficit is growing due to increases in current expenditures and financial losses from the state energy and telephone companies. Honduras is the fastest growing remittance destination in the region with inflows representing over a quarter of GDP, equivalent to nearly three-quarters of exports. The economy relies heavily on a narrow range of exports, notably bananas and coffee, making it vulnerable to natural disasters and shifts in commodity prices, however, investments in the maquila and non-traditional export sectors are slowly diversifying the economy. Growth remains dependent on the economy of the US, its largest trading partner, and on reduction of the high crime rate, as a means of attracting and maintaining investment.
Electricity - consumption 4.036 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 57 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 5.339 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
Environment - current issues urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Exchange rates lempiras per US dollar - 18.9 (2007), 18.895 (2006), 18.92 (2005), 18.206 (2004), 17.345 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 January 2006); Vice President Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 January 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 January 2006); Vice President Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 January 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)

election results: Manuel ZELAYA Rosales elected president - 49.8%, Porfirio "Pepe" LOBO Sosa 46.1%, other 4.1%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $3.924 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 765.4 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities coffee, shrimp, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
Exports - partners US 70.6%, Guatemala 3.5%, El Salvador 3.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 13.5%

industry: 31%

services: 55.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 86 30 W
Geography - note has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 42.2% (2003)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
Imports 57 million kWh (2005)
Imports $6.798 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 42,620 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners US 53%, Guatemala 7%, El Salvador 4.5%, Costa Rica 4.1%, Mexico 4.1% (2006)
Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 5.3% (2007 est.)
Industries sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products
Infant mortality rate total: 25.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.4% (2007 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 800 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Labor force 2.812 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 34%

industry: 23%

services: 43% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,520 km

border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Land use arable land: 9.53%

permanent crops: 3.21%

other: 87.26% (2005)
Languages Spanish, Amerindian dialects
Legal system rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law with increasing influence of English common law; recent judicial reforms include abandoning Napoleonic legal codes in favor of the oral adversarial system; accepts ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members are elected proportionally to the number of votes their party's presidential candidate receives to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 62, PN 55, PUD 5, PDC 4, PINU 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.35 years

male: 67.78 years

female: 70.99 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 80%

male: 79.8%

female: 80.2% (2001 census)
Location Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 126 ships (1000 GRT or over) 352,534 GRT/481,217 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 58, chemical tanker 5, container 1, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 27, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 40 (Bangladesh 1, Canada 1, China 3, Egypt 4, Greece 1, Hong Kong 1, Israel 1, Japan 4, South Korea 6, Lebanon 2, Mexico 1, Singapore 10, Taiwan 2, Tanzania 1, US 1, Vietnam 1) (2007)
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.6% (2006 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Nationality noun: Honduran(s)

adjective: Honduran
Natural hazards frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Natural resources timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Felicito AVILA]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Cesar HAM]; Liberal Party or PL [Patricia RODAS]; National Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge AQUILAR Paredes]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Porfirio LOBO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
Population 7,483,763

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 50.7% (2004)
Population growth rate 2.091% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 241, FM 53, shortwave 12 (1998)
Railways total: 699 km

narrow gauge: 279 km 1.067-m gauge; 420 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.043 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.001 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.826 male(s)/female

total population: 1.011 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate system

domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed-lines in order to expand telephone coverage; fixed-line teledensity has increased to about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone service has been increasing rapidly and subscribership in 2006 exceeded 30 per 100 persons

international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Telephones - main lines in use 708,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.241 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 11 (plus 17 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Total fertility rate 3.48 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 27.8% (2007 est.)
Waterways 465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2007)
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