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Honduras (2002)

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Honduras 2002 year

Administrative divisions 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.8% (male 1,400,778; female 1,340,834)

15-64 years: 54.6% (male 1,774,619; female 1,806,568)

65 years and over: 3.6% (male 112,100; female 125,709) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, coffee, citrus; beef; timber; shrimp
Airports 117 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 103

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 18

under 914 m: 83 (2002)
Area total: 112,090 sq km

land: 111,890 sq km

water: 200 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Tennessee
Background Part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and one-half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting against leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused almost $1 billion in damage.
Birth rate 31.21 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $607 million

expenditures: $411.9 million, including capital expenditures of $106 million (1999 est.)
Capital Tegucigalpa
Climate subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Coastline 820 km
Constitution 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended 1995
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Honduras

conventional short form: Honduras

local long form: Republica de Honduras

local short form: Honduras
Currency lempira (HNL)
Death rate 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.6 billion (2001) (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Larry Leon PALMER

embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa

mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa

telephone: [504] 238-5114, 236-9320

FAX: [504] 236-9037
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mario Miguel CANAHUATI

chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702

FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Phoenix, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa

honorary consulate(s): Boston, Detroit, Jacksonville, and St. Louis
Disputes - international Honduras claims Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize; El Salvador disputes tiny Conejo Island off Honduras in the Golfo de Fonseca; many of the "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary remain undemarcated despite ICJ adjudication in 1992; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised a tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua; Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Economic aid - recipient $557.8 million (1999) (1999)
Economy - overview Honduras, one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere with an extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, is banking on expanded trade privileges under the Enhanced Caribbean Basin Initiative and on debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. While the country has met most of its macroeconomic targets, it failed to meet the IMF's goals to liberalize its energy and telecommunications sectors. Growth remains dependent on the status of the US economy, its major trading partner, on commodity prices, particularly coffee, and on containment of the recent rise in crime.
Electricity - consumption 3.593 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 275 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 3.573 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 37%

hydro: 63%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m
Environment - current issues urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water) as well as several rivers and streams with heavy metals
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Exchange rates lempiras per US dollar - 16.0256 (January 2002), 15.9197 (2001), 15.1407 (2000), 14.5039 (1999), 13.8076 (1998), 13.0942 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (since 27 January 2002); First Vice President Vicente WILLIAMS Agasse (since 27 January 2002); Second Vice President Armida Villela Maria DE LOPEZ Contreras (since 27 January 2002); Third Vice President Alberto DIAZ Lobo (since 27 January 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (since 27 January 2002); First Vice President Vicente WILLIAMS Agasse (since 27 January 2002); Second Vice President Armida Villela Maria DE LOPEZ Contreras (since 27 January 2002); Third Vice President Alberto DIAZ Lobo (since 27 January 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 25 November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2005)

election results: Ricardo (Joest) MADURO (PN) elected president - 52.2%, Raphael PINEDA Ponce (PL) 44.3%, others 3.5%
Exports 5 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities coffee, bananas, shrimp, lobster, meat; zinc, lumber
Exports - partners US 39.9%, El Salvador 9.2%, Germany 7.9%, Belgium 5.8%, Guatemala 5.4% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the word REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $17 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18%

industry: 32%

services: 50% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 N, 86 30 W
Geography - note has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Highways total: 15,400 km

paved: 3,126 km

unpaved: 12,274 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0%

highest 10%: 44% (1997) (1997)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
Imports 275 million kWh (2000)
Imports $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners US 46.1%, Guatemala 8.2%, El Salvador 6.6%, Mexico 4.7%, Japan 4.6% (2000)
Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (1999 est.)
Industries sugar, coffee, textiles, clothing, wood products
Infant mortality rate 30.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.7% (2001 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 760 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Labor force 2.3 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 34%, industry 21%, services 45% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,520 km

border countries: Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342 km, Nicaragua 922 km
Land use arable land: 15.15%

permanent crops: 3.13%

other: 81.72% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish, Amerindian dialects
Legal system rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law with increasing influence of English common law; recent judicial reforms include abandoning Napoleonic legal codes in favor of the oral adversarial system; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members are elected proportionally to the number of votes their party's presidential candidate receives to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 25 November 2001 (next to be held NA November 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PN 61, PL 55, PUD 5, PDC 4, PINU-SD 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.77 years

male: 67.11 years

female: 70.51 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74%

male: 74%

female: 74.1% (1999)
Location Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 284 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 749,243 GRT/846,942 DWT

ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 166, chemical tanker 5, container 6, livestock carrier 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 1, Bahrain 1, Belize 1, British Virgin Islands 1, Bulgaria 1, China 8, Costa Rica 1, Cyprus 1, Egypt 6, El Salvador 1, Germany 1, Greece 18, Hong Kong 3, Indonesia 2, Italy 1, Japan 7, Lebanon 4, Liberia 4, Maldives 2, Marshall Islands 1, Mexico 1, Nigeria 1, Norway 1, Panama 14, Philippines 1, Romania 2, Russia 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 24, South Korea 12, Spain 1, Syria 1, Taiwan 4, Tanzania 1, Trinidad and Tobago 1, Turkey 2, Turks and Caicos Islands 1, United Arab Emirates 6, United Kingdom 1, United States 5, Vanuatu 1, Vietnam 1, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (including marines), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.6% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,563,174 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 930,718 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 72,335 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Nationality noun: Honduran(s)

adjective: Honduran
Natural hazards frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Natural resources timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Net migration rate -2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Dr. Hernan CORRALES Padilla]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [leader NA]; Liberal Party or PL [Roberto MICHELETTI Bain]; National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democratic Party or PINU-SD [Olban F. VALLADARES]; National Party of Honduras or PN [Raphael CALLEJAS]
Political pressure groups and leaders Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP; General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United Federation of Honduran Workers or FUTH
Population 6,560,608

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 53% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 2.34% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela, Puerto Lempira
Radio broadcast stations AM 241, FM 53, shortwave 12 (1998)
Radios 2.45 million (1997)
Railways total: 595 km

narrow gauge: 318 km 1.067-m gauge; 277 km 0.914-m gauge (2000)
Religions Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant minority
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: inadequate system

domestic: NA

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Telephones - main lines in use 234,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 14,427 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 11 (plus 17 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Total fertility rate 4.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 28% (2001 est.)
Waterways 465 km (navigable by small craft)
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