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Chile (2004)

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Chile 2004 year

Administrative divisions 13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Age structure 0-14 years: 25.8% (male 2,090,165; female 1,996,972)

15-64 years: 66.3% (male 5,235,061; female 5,261,820)

65 years and over: 7.8% (male 515,698; female 724,241) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Airports 363 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 71

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 21

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 15 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 293

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 60

under 914 m: 217 (2004 est.)
Area total: 756,950 sq km

land: 748,800 sq km

water: 8,150 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Area - comparative slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Background A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973 by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.
Birth rate 15.77 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $15.44 billion

expenditures: $16.02 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
Capital Santiago
Climate temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Coastline 6,435 km
Constitution 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981, amended 30 July 1989, 1993, and 1997
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Chile

conventional short form: Chile

local long form: Republica de Chile

local short form: Chile
Currency Chilean peso (CLP)
Death rate 5.71 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $43.15 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Craig A. KELLY

embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago

mailing address: APO AA 34033

telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600

FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andres BIANCHI

chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746

FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international Bolivia has reactivated its claim to the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884 to secure sovereign maritime access for Bolivian natural gas; dispute with Peru over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Beagle Channel islands dispute resolved through Papal mediation in 1984, but armed incidents persist since 1992 oil discovery; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $40 million (2001 est.)
Economy - overview Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in check and because of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of 1999, exports and economic activity had begun to recover, and growth rebounded to 4.2% in 2000. Growth fell back to 3.1% in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002, largely due to lackluster global growth and the devaluation of the Argentine peso, but recovered to 3.2% in 2003. Unemployment, although declining over the past year, remains stubbornly high, putting pressure on President LAGOS to improve living standards. One bright spot was the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. In 2004, GDP growth is set to accelerate to more than 4% as copper prices rise, export earnings grow, and foreign direct investment picks up.
Electricity - consumption 40.13 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 1.386 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 41.66 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Environment - current issues widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%
Exchange rates Chilean pesos per US dollar - 691.433 (2003), 688.936 (2002), 634.938 (2001), 535.466 (2000), 508.777 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $20.44 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
Exports - partners US 16.2%, Japan 10.5%, China 8.6%, South Korea 4.7%, Mexico 4.3%, Italy 4.2% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the US flag
GDP purchasing power parity - $154.7 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6.4%

industry: 38.6%

services: 55.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $9,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.3% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 30 00 S, 71 00 W
Geography - note strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
Highways total: 79,814 km

paved: 15,484 km (including 294 km of expressways)

unpaved: 64,330 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.7%

highest 10%: 41% (2000)
Illicit drugs important transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the US; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone, but a new anti-money-laundering law improves controls; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising
Imports 1.386 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $17.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 5.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food
Imports - partners Argentina 19.4%, US 13%, Brazil 10.4%, China 6.6% (2003)
Independence 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 1.5% (2003 est.)
Industries copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 9.05 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.81 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 18,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the 21-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
Labor force 6 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 13.6%, industry 23.4%, services 63% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 6,171 km

border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Land use arable land: 2.65%

permanent crops: 0.42%

other: 96.93% (2001)
Languages Spanish
Legal system based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

note: Chile is in the process of completely overhauling its criminal justice system; a new, US-style adversarial system is being gradually implemented throughout the country with the final stage of implementation in the Santiago metropolitan region expected in June 2005
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote, 9 designated members, and 1 former president who has served a full six-year term and is senator for life); elected members serve eight-year terms (one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 20 (PDC 12, PS 5, PPD 3), APC 16 (UDI 9, RN 7), independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 62 (PDC 24, PPD 21, PS 11, PRSD 6), UDI 35, RN 22, independent 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.38 years

male: 73.09 years

female: 79.82 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.2%

male: 96.4%

female: 96.1% (2003 est.)
Location Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Map references South America
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200/350 nm
Merchant marine total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 725,216 GRT/954,519 DWT

by type: bulk 10, cargo 5, chemical tanker 9, container 3, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea/passenger 1, vehicle carrier 4

foreign-owned: Argentina 1

registered in other countries: 28 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps), Air Force of the Nation, Chilean Carabineros (National Police)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2,839.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 4,207,066 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,107,454 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 131,283 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Nationality noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean
Natural hazards severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
Natural resources copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 2,583 km; gas/lpg 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 539 km; oil 1,003 km; refined products 757 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Chile ("Alianza") or APC - including RN and UDI; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Adolfo ZALDIVAR]; Coalition of Parties for Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD - including PDC, PS, PPD, PRSD; Communist Party or PC [Gladys MARIN]; Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Pablo LONGUEIRA]; National Renewal or RN [Sebastian PINERA]; Party for Democracy or PPD [Victor BARRUETO]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Orlando CANTUARIAS]; Socialist Party or PS [Gonzalo MARTNER]
Political pressure groups and leaders revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
Population 15,823,957 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 20.6% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.01% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso
Radio broadcast stations AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (one inactive) (1998)
Railways total: 6,585 km

broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2003)
Religions Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish negligible
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities

domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

international: country code - 56; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.467 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,445,700 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Total fertility rate 2.06 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 8.5% (2003 est.)
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