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Chile (2007)

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Chile 2007 roku

 Chile
Podzial administracyjny 15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso


note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarktyda
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.1% (male 2,010,576/female 1,920,951)


15-64 years: 67.4% (male 5,480,703/female 5,492,988)


65 years and over: 8.5% (male 576,698/female 802,825) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Lotniska 358 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 79


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 8


1,524 to 2,437 m: 22


914 to 1,523 m: 25


under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 279


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 12


914 to 1,523 m: 49


under 914 m: 216 (2007)
Terytorium total: 756,950 sq km


land: 748,800 sq km


water: 8,150 sq km


note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Tlo historyczne Prior to the coming of the Spanish w the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while Araucanian Indiens (also known as Mapuches) inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence w 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Boliwia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Araucanian Indiens were completely subjugated. A three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown w 1973 by a military coup led by sierpieno PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was installed w 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.03 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $37.78 billion


expenditures: $26.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stolica name: Santiago


geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W


time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday w pazdziernik; ends second Sunday w marzec
Klimat temperate; desert w north; Mediterranean w central region; cool and damp w south
Linia brzegowa 6,435 km
Konstytucja 11 wrzesien 1980, effective 11 marzec 1981; amended 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Chile


conventional short form: Chile


local long form: Republica de Chile


local short form: Chile
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.87 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $47.71 billion (2006 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Craig A. KELLY


embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago


mailing address: APO AA 34033


telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600


FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mariano FERNANDEZ


chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 530-4104, 530-4106, 530-4107


FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chile rebuffs Boliwia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile w 1884, offering instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Boliwian gas and other commodities; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary z Chile to an equidistance line z a southwestern axis favoring Peru; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentyna w 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary w the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $0 (2006)
Ekonomia Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's reputation as a role model dla economic reform was strengthened when the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from the military w 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the military government. Growth w real Produkt krajowy brutto averaged 8% during 1991-97, but fell to half that level w 1998 because of tight monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit w check and because of lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession w 1999, reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and electricity rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth dla the first time w more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the recession, Chile maintained its reputation dla strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating w South America. Between 2000 and 2006 growth ranged between 2%-6%. Throughout these years Chile maintained a low rate of inflation z Produkt krajowy brutto growth coming from high copper prices, solid export earnings (particularly forestry, fishing, and mining), and growing domestic consumption. Chile continues to attract foreign direct investment, but most foreign investment goes into gas, water, electricity and mining. Unemployment has exhibited a downward trend over the past year, dropping to 7.8% at the end of 2006. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization z the signing of a free trade agreement z the US, which took effect on 1 styczen 2004. Chile signed or ratified a number of trade agreements w 2006, including z Chiny and Indie. Chile claims to have more bilateral or regional trade agreements than any other country. It has 57 such agreements (not all of them full free trade agreements), including z the Unia Europejska, Mercosur, South Korea, and Meksyk.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 48.31 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.152 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 47.6 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%
Kurs waluty Chilean pesos per US dollar - 530.29 (2006), 560.09 (2005), 609.37 (2004), 691.43 (2003), 688.94 (2002)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 marzec 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 marzec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 11 grudzien 2005, z runoff election held 15 styczen 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2009)


election results: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 53.5%; Sebastian PINERA Echenique 46.5%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $58.12 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 31,510 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
Eksport - partnerzy US 15.6%, Japonia 10.5%, Chiny 8.6%, Holandia 6.7%, South Korea 5.9%, Wlochy 4.9%, Brazylia 4.8%, Francja 4.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star w the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is dla the snow-covered Andes, and red stands dla the blood spilled to achieve independence; design was influenced by the US flag
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.1%


industry: 49.8%


services: 45.2% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4% (2006 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 30 00 S, 71 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.4%


highest 10%: 45% (2003)
Narkotyki important transshipment country dla cocaine destined dla Europe; economic prosperity and increasing trade have made Chile more attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone, but a new anti-money-laundering law improves controls; imported precursors passed on to Boliwia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising; significant consumer of cocaine
Import 2.152 billion kWh (2005)
Import $35.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Import 6.234 billion cu m (2005)
Import 222,900 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
Import - partnerzy US 15.6%, Argentyna 12.6%, Brazylia 11.8%, Chiny 9.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 18 wrzesien 1810 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.1% (2006)
Przemysl copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 8.36 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 9.09 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 7.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.4% (2006 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, APEC, BIS, CAN (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 19,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every three years by the 20-member court); Konstytucjaal Tribunal
Sila robocza 6.835 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 13.6%


industry: 23.4%


services: 63% (2003)
Granica total: 6,339 km


border countries: Argentyna 5,308 km, Boliwia 860 km, Peru 171 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.62%


permanent crops: 0.43%


other: 96.95% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; note - w czerwiec 2005, Chile completed overhaul of its criminal justice system to a new, US-style adversarial system
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms; one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 11 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w grudzien 2009); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 grudzien 2005 (next to be held w grudzien 2009)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 20 (PDC 6, PS 8, PPD 3, PRSD 3), APC 17 (UDI 9, RN 8), independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 65 (PDC 21, PPD 22, PS 15, PRSD 7), APC 54 (UDI 34, RN 20), independent 1
Zywotnosc total population: 76.96 years


male: 73.69 years


female: 80.4 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 95.7%


male: 95.8%


female: 95.6% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Southern South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Argentyna and Peru
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200/350 nm
Flota handlowa total: 48 ships (1000 GRT or over) 719,668 GRT/1,016,892 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 6, chemical tanker 11, container 1, liquefied gas 2, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 3


foreign-owned: 1 (Argentyna 1)


registered w other countries: 20 (Argentyna 7, Brazylia 1, Wyspy Marshalla 4, Panama 8) (2007)
Wojsko Army of the Nation, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes naval air, marine corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh), Chilean Carabineros (National Police) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.7% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 18 wrzesien (1810)
Narodowosc noun: Chilean(s)


adjective: Chilean
Naturalne zagrozenia severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
Surowce naturalne copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,567 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 42 km; liquid petroleum gas 539 km; oil 1,003 km; refined products 757 km; unknown (oil/water) 97 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance dla Chile ("Alianza") or APC (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena] and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Hernan LARRAIN Fernandez]); Coalition of Parties dla Democracy ("Concertacion") or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Soledad ALVEAR], Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA], Party dla Democracy or PPD [Sergio BITAR Chacra], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia]); Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow revitalized university student federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
Ludnosc 16,284,741 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 18.2% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 0.916% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 180 (8 inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17 (1 inactive) (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 6,585 km


broad gauge: 2,831 km 1.676-m gauge (1,317 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 3,754 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.047 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.718 male(s)/female


total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: privatization began w 1988; advanced telecommunications infrastructure; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; fixed-line connections have dropped w recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching a level of 75 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite system z 3 earth stations


international: country code - 56; submarine cables provide links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 3.326 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 12.451 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.97 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.8% (2006 est.)
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