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Tanzania (2002)

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Tanzania 2002 year

Administrative divisions 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Age structure 0-14 years: 44.6% (male 8,338,764; female 8,247,789)

15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951; female 9,847,084)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 125 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 112

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 60

under 914 m: 34 (2002)
Area total: 945,087 sq km

land: 886,037 sq km

water: 59,050 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparative slightly larger than twice the size of California
Background Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Birth rate 39.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.01 billion

expenditures: $1.38 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est. )
Capital Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Climate varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Coastline 1,424 km
Constitution 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Country name conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania

conventional short form: Tanzania

former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Currency Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Death rate 13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $6.8 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robert V. ROYALL

embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam

mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam

telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015

FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Mhando DARAJA

chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125

FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Disputes - international Tanzania and Malawi maintain a largely dormant dispute over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and current location of historical boundary in the meandering Songwe River
Economic aid - recipient $963 million (1997) (1997)
Economy - overview Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2001 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should support steady real GDP growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.
Electricity - consumption 2.616 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 45 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 2.765 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 18%

hydro: 82%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Environment - current issues soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
Exchange rates Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 924.70 (January 2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government

head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government

note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000

cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $827 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton (2000)
Exports - partners UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%, Netherlands 6.9% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $22.1 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 48%

industry: 17%

services: 35% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $610 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Geography - note Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
Highways total: 85,000 km

paved: 4,250 km

unpaved: 80,750 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 30% (1993)
Illicit drugs growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem
Imports 45 million kWh (2000)
Imports $1.55 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK 7.0%, Australia 6.2% (2000)
Independence 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
Industrial production growth rate 8.4% (1999 est.)
Industries primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Infant mortality rate 77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Labor force 13.495 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,861 km

border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Land use arable land: 4.24%

permanent crops: 1.02%

other: 94.74% (1998 est.)
Languages Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages

note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16
Life expectancy at birth total population: 51.7 years

male: 50.76 years

female: 52.67 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic

total population: 67.8%

male: 79.4%

female: 56.8% (1995 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Tanzanian People's Defense Force (including Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit (including Police Marine Unit and Police Air Wing), territorial militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $19 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.2% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,997,257 (2002 est.)
National holiday Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Nationality noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian
Natural hazards flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Natural resources hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Net migration rate -0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 982 km
Political parties and leaders Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA, chaiman]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA, secretary general]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA, chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 37,187,939

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 51% (1991 est.)
Population growth rate 2.6% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 8.8 million (1997)
Railways total: 3,569 km

narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge

note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways (2001)
Religions mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction

domestic: trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 127,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 3 (1999)
Terrain plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Total fertility rate 5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on those lakes
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