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Tanzania (2001)

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Tanzania 2001 year

Administrative divisions 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Age structure 0-14 years:
44.76% (male 8,152,438; female 8,063,520)

15-64 years:
52.35% (male 9,387,737; female 9,581,518)

65 years and over:
2.89% (male 473,498; female 573,363) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 126 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
35 (2000 est.)
Area total:
945,087 sq km

886,037 sq km

59,050 sq km

includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparative slightly larger than twice the size of California
Background Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Birth rate 39.65 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.21 billion

$1.36 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Climate varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Coastline 1,424 km
Constitution 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Country name conventional long form:
United Republic of Tanzania

conventional short form:

United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Currency Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Death rate 12.95 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $6.8 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Charge d'Affaires Wanda NESBITT

140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam

mailing address:
P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam

[255] (22) 666010 through 666015

[255] (22) 666701
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG'ANYI

2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 939-6125

[1] (202) 797-7408
Disputes - international dispute with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); a resurvey of the latitudinal boundary with Uganda in 2000 revealed a 300-meter discrepancy that both sides are currently adjudicating
Economic aid - recipient $963 million (1997)
Economy - overview Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2000 featured a pick up in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should allow Tanzania to achieve real GDP growth of 6% in 2001 and in 2002.
Electricity - consumption 2.134 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 43 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 2.248 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Environment - current issues soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
Exchange rates Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 803.34 (December 2000), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997), 579.98 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since 23 November 1995); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000

Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $937 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities coffee, manufactured goods, cotton, cashew nuts, minerals, tobacco, sisal (1996)
Exports - partners India 20%, UK 10%, Germany 8%, Japan 8%, Netherlands 8%, Belgium 4% (1998)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
GDP purchasing power parity - $25.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


34% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $710 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Geography - note Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa
Highways total:
88,200 km

3,704 km

84,496 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
30.2% (1993)
Illicit drugs growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa
Imports 43 million kWh (1999)
Imports $1.57 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners South Africa 8%, Japan 8%, UK 8%, Kenya 7%, India 6%, US 5% (1998)
Independence 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
Industrial production growth rate 8.4% (1999 est.)
Industries primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Infant mortality rate 79.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G- 6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,500 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Labor force 13.495 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 80%, industry and commerce 20% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,402 km

border countries:
Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

18% (1993 est.)
Languages Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages

Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)

last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)

election results:
National Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16
Life expectancy at birth total population:
51.98 years

51.04 years

52.95 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic

total population:


56.8% (1995 est.)
Location Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Tanzanian People's Defense Force or TPDF (includes Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit, Militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $21 million (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.2% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
8,365,337 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
4,841,095 (2001 est.)
National holiday Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Natural resources hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Net migration rate -0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 982 km
Political parties and leaders Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF [Seif Sharif HAMAD, secretary-general]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA, leader]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [Kassim MAGUTU, secretary-general]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA, chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO, leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 36,232,074

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 51.1% (1991 est.)
Population growth rate 2.61% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Radio broadcast stations AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 8.8 million (1997)
Railways total:
3,569 km (1995)

narrow gauge:
2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge

the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways
Religions mainland - Christian 45%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 20%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.83 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction

trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 127,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 30,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 3 (1999)
Terrain plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Total fertility rate 5.42 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways note:
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on those lakes
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