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Tajikistan (2002)

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Tajikistan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314; female 1,346,465)

15-64 years: 54.9% (male 1,835,573; female 1,854,677)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 53 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 51

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 36 (2002)
Area total: 143,100 sq km

land: 142,700 sq km

water: 400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Background Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
Birth rate 32.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $146 million

expenditures: $196 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) (2000 est.)
Capital Dushanbe
Climate midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 6 November 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: Tojikiston

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency somoni
Death rate 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.23 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin P. HUDDLE, Jr.

embassy: 10 Pavlova Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note - the embassy in Dushanbe is not yet fully operational; most business is still handled in Almaty at 531 Sayfullin Street, Almaty, Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-61, FAX 7-3272-58079-68

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [992] (372) 21-03-48, 21-03-50, 21-03-52, 24-15-60

FAX: [992] (372) 51-00-28, 21-03-62
Diplomatic representation in the US Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a permanent mission to the UN: address - 136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Khamrokhon ZARIPOV
Disputes - international Uzbekistan has mined much of its undemarcated southern and eastern border with Tajikistan; border demarcation negotiations continuing with Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing water resources and the resulting regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea
Economic aid - recipient $60.7 million from US (2001)
Economy - overview Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 80% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced strong economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, and the external debt burden. Servicing of the debt, owed principally to Russia and Uzbekistan, could require as much as 50% of government revenues in 2002, thus limiting the nation's ability to meet pressing development needs.
Electricity - consumption 12.539 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 3.909 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 14.245 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 2%

hydro: 98%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Environment - current issues inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%
Exchange rates Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.55 (January 2002), 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996)

note: the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles
Executive branch chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
Exports 3.909 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $640 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan 13% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
GDP purchasing power parity - $7.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 19%

industry: 25%

services: 56% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 8.3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Highways total: 29,900 km

paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80 percent of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third world-wide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium)
Imports 3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $700 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe 12% (2000)
Independence 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 10.3% (2000 est.)
Industries aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Infant mortality rate 114.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 33% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2002)
Irrigated land 7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 3.187 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 67%, industry 8%, services 25% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,651 km

border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Land use arable land: 5.41%

permanent crops: 0.92%

other: 93.67% (1998 est.)
Languages Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.28 years

male: 61.24 years

female: 67.46 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 97% (1989 est.)
Location Central Asia, west of China
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35.4 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,349,505 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 72,056 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Nationality noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani
Natural hazards earthquakes and floods
Natural resources hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Net migration rate -3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 400 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Revival Party [Said Abdullo NURI, chairman]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Sherali KENJAYEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders there are two unregistered political parties with 1,000 or more members: Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
Population 6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.12% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Radios 1.291 million (1991)
Railways total: 482 km

broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge

note: includes only lines in common carrier service; lines dedicated to particular industries are excluded (2001)
Religions Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network

domestic: cable and microwave radio relay

international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,500 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 13 (2001)
Terrain Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Total fertility rate 4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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