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Tajikistan (2001)

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Tajikistan 2001 year

Administrative divisions 2 oblasts (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and one autonomous oblast* (viloyati mukhtori); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh - formerly Khorog), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa - formerly Kurgan-Tyube), Viloyati Leninobod (Khujand - formerly Leninabad)

the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years:
41.18% (male 1,367,194; female 1,341,967)

15-64 years:
54.22% (male 1,773,605; female 1,793,345)

65 years and over:
4.6% (male 131,009; female 171,561) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 53 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
36 (2000 est.)
Area total:
143,100 sq km

142,700 sq km

400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Background Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implementation reportedly completed by late 1999. Part of the agreement required the legalization of opposition political parties prior to the 1999 elections, which occurred, but such parties have made little progress in successful participation in government. Random criminal and political violence in the country remains a complication impairing Tajikistan's ability to engage internationally.
Birth rate 33.23 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$146 million

$196 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Dushanbe
Climate midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 6 November 1994
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form:

local long form:
Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form:

Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency somoni
Death rate 8.57 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.3 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Robert P. J. FINN

temporarily collocated with the US Embassy in Almaty (Kazakhstan)

mailing address:
use embassy street address


Diplomatic representation in the US Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a permanent mission to the UN: address - 136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV
Disputes - international portions of Tajikistan's northern and western border with Uzbekistan and its eastern border with China have not been officially demarcated; territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan on northern boundary in Isfara Valley area
Economic aid - recipient $64.7 million (1995)
Economy - overview Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The Tajikistani economy has been gravely weakened by six years of civil conflict and by the loss of subsidies from Moscow and of markets for its products. Most of its people live in abject poverty. Tajikistan depends on aid from Russia and Uzbekistan and on international humanitarian assistance for much of its basic subsistence needs. The future of Tajikistan's economy and the potential for attracting foreign investment depend upon stability and continued progress in the peace process.
Electricity - consumption 14.729 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 3.9 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 4.1 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 15.623 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Syrdariya 300 m

highest point:
Pik Imeni Ismail Samani 7,495 m
Environment - current issues inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%
Exchange rates Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996)

the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles
Executive branch chief of state:
President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government:
Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)

Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
Exports 3.9 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $761 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners Liechtenstein 26%, Uzbekistan 20%, Russia 8% (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
GDP purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


62.1% (1998)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
29,900 km

21,400 km (these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather)

8,500 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs major transshipment zone for heroin and opiates from Afghanistan going to Russia and Western Europe; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis, mostly for domestic consumption
Imports 4.1 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $782 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Europe 32.3%, Uzbekistan 29%, Russia 13.6% (1998)
Independence 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 10% (2000 est.)
Industries aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Infant mortality rate 116.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 33% (2000 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM, ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Irrigated land 6,390 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 1.9 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, industry 20%, services 30% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,651 km

border countries:
Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

65% (1993 est.)
Languages Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all to serve five-year terms)

last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)

election results:
Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Life expectancy at birth total population:
64.18 years

61.09 years

67.42 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


97% (1989 est.)
Location Central Asia, west of China
Map references Commonwealth of Independent States
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $17 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,586,700 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,300,252 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
72,056 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 September (1991)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Net migration rate -3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 400 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Congress of People's Unity of Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Lali Badakhshan Movement [Atobek AMIRBEKOV]; National Movement Party [Hakim MUHHABATOV]; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Rastokhez (Rebirth) Movement [Tohiri ABDUJABBOR]; Socialist Party [Sherali KENJAEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 6,578,681 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.12% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 1.291 million (1991)
Railways total:
480 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Religions Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.76 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network

cable and microwave radio relay

linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,500 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 0 (there are, however, repeaters that relay programs from Russia, Iran, and Turkey) (1997)
Terrain Pamir and Alay mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Total fertility rate 4.29 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.7% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers and unregistered unemployed people (December 1998)
Waterways none
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