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Tajikistan (2007)

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Tajikistan 2007 year

Administrative divisions 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 35% (male 1,261,247/female 1,218,686)

15-64 years: 61.2% (male 2,145,300/female 2,184,519)

65 years and over: 3.8% (male 113,186/female 153,660) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Airports 26 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 18

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8

under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Area total: 143,100 sq km

land: 142,700 sq km

water: 400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Background The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-97 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
Birth rate 27.33 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $519.3 million

expenditures: $612.4 million (2006 est.)
Capital name: Dushanbe

geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 6 November 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: Tojikiston

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 7.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $876 million (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON

embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019

mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189

telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00

FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV

chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090

FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Disputes - international in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Economic aid - recipient $241.4 million from US (2005)
Economy - overview Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable; cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in abject poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004 but dropped to 8% in 2005 and to 7% in 2006. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises could increase productivity. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head. A proposed investment to finish the hydropower dams Rogun and Sangtuda I and II would substantially add to electricity production, which could be exported for profit. If finished, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. In 2006, Tajikistan was the recipient of substantial infrastructure development credits from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to improve its roads and electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US is constructing a $36 million bridge linking Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
Electricity - consumption 14.66 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 4.257 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 4.508 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 16.89 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Environment - current issues inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Exchange rates Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003), 2.7641 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMONOV reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 79.3%, Olimzon BOBOYEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Exports 4.257 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $1.512 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners Netherlands 40.7%, Turkey 31.7%, Iran 5.4%, Uzbekistan 4.8%, Russia 4.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 23%

industry: 28%

services: 49% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 25.6% (2003)
Illicit drugs major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
Imports 4.508 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $1.955 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 1.333 billion cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Russia 24.6%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Uzbekistan 10.2%, China 8.6%, Azerbaijan 8% (2006)
Independence 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 8.2% (2002 est.)
Industries aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Infant mortality rate total: 43.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 48.73 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 11.9% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 7,220 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 3.7 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 67.2%

industry: 7.5%

services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,651 km

border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Land use arable land: 6.52%

permanent crops: 0.89%

other: 92.59% (2005)
Languages Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 25 March 2005 for the National Assembly (next to be held in February 2010) and 27 February and 13 March 2005 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held in February 2010)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.61 years

male: 61.6 years

female: 67.78 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.5%

male: 99.7%

female: 99.2% (2000 census)
Location Central Asia, west of China
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Force (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Nationality noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani
Natural hazards earthquakes and floods
Natural resources hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Net migration rate -1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimzon BOBOYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People's Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is a SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
Population 7,076,598 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 64% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 1.895% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Railways total: 482 km

broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Religions Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.737 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network

domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephony is rare and coverage remains limited

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat (2006)
Telephones - main lines in use 280,200 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 265,000 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2006)
Terrain Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Total fertility rate 3.09 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 12% (2004 est.)
Waterways 200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2006)
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