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Singapore (2002)

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Singapore 2002 year

Administrative divisions none
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 404,212; female 378,660)

15-64 years: 75.3% (male 1,630,696; female 1,724,532)

65 years and over: 7.1% (male 137,512; female 177,120) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
Airports 9 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 692.7 sq km

land: 682.7 sq km

water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Birth rate 12.78 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $27.9 billion

expenditures: $19.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.4 billion
Capital Singapore
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Coastline 193 km
Constitution 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Death rate 4.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $8.3 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin L. LAVIN

embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address: PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96534-0001

telephone: [65] 6476-9100

FAX: [65] 6476-9232
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Heng Chee CHAN

chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100

FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

consulate(s) general: San Francisco

consulate(s): New York
Disputes - international Singapore and Malaysia are considering taking the unresolved dispute over Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca Island) to ICJ; Malaysia concerned over Singapore's land reclamation works on Johor, which affects the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, and water ecology in the Tebrau Reach
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Singapore, a highly developed and successful free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita GDPs in the world. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing, and was hard hit in 2001 by the global recession and the slump in the technology sector. In 2001, GDP contracted by 2.2%. The economy is expected to recover in 2002 in response to improvements in the US economy, and GDP growth for 2002 is projected to be 3% to 4%. In the longer term the government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle than the current export-led model, but is unlikely to abandon efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.
Electricity - consumption 25.947 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 27.9 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Environment - current issues industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%
Exchange rates Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.8388 (January 2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Chok Tong GOH (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Hsien Loong LEE (since 28 November 1990) and Keng Yam Tony TAN (since 1 August 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held by August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $122 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners Malaysia 18%, US 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7.5%, Taiwan 6%, Thailand 4.3%, China 4%, South Korea 3.6%, Germany 3%, Netherlands 3% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
GDP purchasing power parity - $106.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NEGL%

industry: 33%

services: 67% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $24,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -2.2% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Geography - note focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Highways total: 3,150 km

paved: 3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)

unpaved: 84 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to use as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $116 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Japan 17%, Malaysia 17%, US 15%, China 5%, Taiwan 4.4%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 3.6%, Saudi Arabia 3% (2000)
Independence 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Industrial production growth rate -17.5% (2001 est.)
Industries electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology
Infant mortality rate 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Labor force 2.19 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%, other 22%
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 98.36% (1998 est.)
Languages Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who came closet to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency" member

elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held 25 June 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 75.3% (in contested constituencies), other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 80.29 years

male: 77.34 years

female: 83.47 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.5%

male: 97%

female: 89.8% (1999)
Location Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice

territorial sea: 3 NM
Merchant marine total: 876 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,686,612 GRT/32,647,743 DWT

ships by type: bulk 131, cargo 100, chemical tanker 81, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 168, liquefied gas 35, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 287, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 32

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 7, Belgium 6, China 12, Denmark 27, Germany 17, Greece 4, Hong Kong 44, Indonesia 8, Japan 52, Malaysia 4, Monaco 22, Netherlands 2, Norway 42, Philippines 6, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, South Korea 10, Sweden 13, Switzerland 7, Taiwan 46, Tanzania 2, Thailand 22, United Arab Emirates 4, United Kingdom 14, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.47 billion (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.9% (FY01/02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,354,857 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 986,101 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 August (1965)
Nationality noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, deepwater ports
Net migration rate 26.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [leader NA]; People's Action Party or PAP [Chok Tong GOH, secretary general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong] (includes Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong], Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan], National Solidarity Party [leader NA], Singapore Justice Party [leader NA], and Singapore Malay National Organization [leader NA]); Workers' Party or WP [J. B. JEYARETNAM]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,452,732 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.46% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Singapore
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 16, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 2.6 million (2000)
Railways total: 38.6 km

narrow gauge: 38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

note: there is also a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations
Religions Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: major consideration given to serving business interests; excellent international service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities

international: submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.95 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.74 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Terrain lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Total fertility rate 1.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.7% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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