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Singapore (2005)

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Singapore 2005 year

Administrative divisions none
Age structure 0-14 years: 16% (male 366,971/female 342,295)

15-64 years: 75.9% (male 1,639,842/female 1,719,829)

65 years and over: 8.1% (male 157,636/female 199,147) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
Airports 10 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 692.7 sq km

land: 682.7 sq km

water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Birth rate 9.49 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $17.05 billion

expenditures: $18.45 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2004 est.)
Capital Singapore
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Coastline 193 km
Constitution 3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore
Death rate 4.16 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $19.4 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin L. LAVIN

embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001

telephone: [65] 6476-9100

FAX: [65] 6476-9340
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee

chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100

FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

consulate(s) general: San Francisco

consulate(s): New York
Disputes - international disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview Singapore, a highly developed and successful free market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP equal to that of the Big 4 West European countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing. It was hard hit in 2001-03 by the global recession, by the slump in the technology sector, and by an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003, which curbed tourism and consumer spending. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, a surge in exports, and internal flexibility led to vigorous growth in 2004, with real GDP rising by 8 percent, by far the economy's best performance since 2000.
Electricity - consumption 32 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 35.33 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Environment - current issues industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census)
Exchange rates Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 August 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugan JAYAKUMAR (since 12 August 2004) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; last appointed 17 August 2005 (next election to be held by August 2011); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president

election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN appointed president in August 2005 after Presidential Elections Committee disqualified three other would-be candidates
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $174 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners Malaysia 15.2%, US 13%, Hong Kong 9.8%, China 8.6%, Japan 6.4%, Taiwan 4.6%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 4.1% (2004)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0% negligible

industry: 32.6%

services: 67.4% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 8.1% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Geography - note focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Highways total: 3,130 km

paved: 3,130 km (including 150 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to be used as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $155.2 billion (2004 est.)
Imports 2.5 billion cu m

note: from Indonesia and Malaysia (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Malaysia 15.3%, US 12.7%, Japan 11.7%, China 9.9%, Taiwan 5.7%, South Korea 4.3%, Thailand 4.1% (2004)
Independence 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
Industrial production growth rate 11.1% (2004 est.)
Industries electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Infant mortality rate total: 2.29 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.7% (2004 est.)
International organization participation APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Labor force 2.18 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 18%, construction 6%, transportation and communication 11%, financial, business, and other services 49%, other 16% (2003)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 98.36% (2001)
Languages Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census)
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who came closest to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency" member

elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held not later than 25 June 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 75.3% (in contested constituencies), other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SPP 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 81.62 years

male: 79.05 years

female: 84.39 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 96.6%

female: 88.6% (2002)
Location Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Merchant marine total: 923 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 23,065,290 GRT/36,393,317 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 138, cargo 86, chemical tanker 115, combination ore/oil 5, container 180, liquefied gas 42, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 316, refrigerated cargo 3, vehicle carrier 36

foreign-owned: 487 (Australia 5, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 10, China 15, Denmark 34, Germany 7, Greece 5, Hong Kong 43, India 3, Indonesia 54, Japan 83, Malaysia 31, Norway 83, Philippines 3, Russia 1, Slovenia 1, South Korea 12, Sweden 12, Taiwan 44, Thailand 17, UAE 6, United Kingdom 12, United States 5)

registered in other countries: 276 (2005)
Military branches Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.47 billion (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.9% (FY01)
National holiday National Day, 9 August (1965)
Nationality noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, deepwater ports
Net migration rate 10.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 139 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders governing party: People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; opposition parties: Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [LING How Dong]; National Solidarity Party or NSP [vacant] (SDA group); Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong] (includes SPP, PKMS, NSP, SJP); Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore Justice Party or SJP [Desmond LIM] (SDA group); Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS [Malik ISMAIL] (SDA group); Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong] (SDA group); Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia Lim Swee LIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,425,720 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 1.56% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Singapore
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 17, shortwave 2 (2003)
Religions Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, Catholic 4.8%, other Christian 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: excellent service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities

international: country code - 65; submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 1,896,100 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,521,800 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 7 (2003)
Terrain lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Total fertility rate 1.05 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.4% (2004 est.)
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