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Singapore (2001)

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Singapore 2001 year

Administrative divisions none
Age structure 0-14 years:
17.89% (male 397,124; female 372,058)

15-64 years:
75.16% (male 1,575,381; female 1,656,838)

65 years and over:
6.95% (male 130,815; female 168,203) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
Airports 9 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
647.5 sq km

637.5 sq km

10 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, Singapore joined Malaysia in 1963, but withdrew two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest) and with per capita GDP above that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Birth rate 12.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$18.1 billion

$17.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $9.5 billion (FY99/00 est.)
Capital Singapore
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Coastline 193 km
Constitution 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Singapore

conventional short form:
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Death rate 4.24 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $9.7 billion (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address:
PSC Box 470, FPO AP 96534-0001

[65] 476-9100

[65] 476-9340
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee

3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 537-3100

[1] (202) 537-0876

consulate(s) general:
Los Angeles, San Francisco

New York
Disputes - international Pedra Branca Island (Pulau Batu Putih) disputed with Malaysia
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Singapore is blessed with a highly developed and successful free-market economy, a remarkably open and corruption-free business environment, stable prices, and the fifth highest per capita GDP in the world. Exports, particularly in electronics and chemicals, and services are the main drivers of the economy. Mainly because of robust exports, especially electronic goods, the economy grew 10.1% in 2000. Forecasters, however, are projecting only 4%-6% growth in 2001 largely because of weaker global demand, especially in the US. The government promotes high levels of savings and investment through a mandatory savings scheme and spends heavily in education and technology. It also owns government-linked companies (GLCs) - particularly in manufacturing - that operate as commercial entities. As Singapore looks to a future increasingly marked by globalization, the country is positioning itself as the region's financial and high-tech hub.
Electricity - consumption 25.464 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 27.381 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point:
Bukit Timah 166 m
Environment - current issues industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%
Exchange rates Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.7365 (January 2001), 1.7240 (2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

head of government:
Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November 1990) and Deputy Prime Ministers LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)

Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held NA August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results:
Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $137 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment (including electronics), chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners US 19%, Malaysia 17%, Hong Kong 8%, Japan 7%, Taiwan 5%, Thailand 4%, UK 4%, Netherlands 3.8%, China 3%, South Korea 3%, Germany 3% (1999)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
GDP purchasing power parity - $109.8 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 10.1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Geography - note focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
3,150 km

3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)

84 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to use as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $127 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners US 17%, Japan 17%, Malaysia 16%, Thailand 5%, China 5%, Taiwan 4%, Germany 3%, Saudi Arabia 3% (1999)
Independence 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Industrial production growth rate 14% (2000 est.)
Industries electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, biotechnology
Infant mortality rate 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.4% (2000)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, Australia Group (observer), BIS, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 9 (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Labor force 2.1 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation financial, business, and other services 35%, manufacturing 21%, construction 13%, transportation and communication 9%
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

87% (1993 est.)
Languages Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 2 January 1997 (next to be held by 26 August 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PAP 65% (in contested constituencies), other 35%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 1, SPP 1; note - subsequent to the election, there was a change in the distribution of seats, the new distribution is as follows: PAP 80, WP 1, SPP 1, vacant 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
80.17 years

77.22 years

83.35 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


89.8% (1999)
Location Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone:
within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice

territorial sea:
3 NM
Merchant marine total:
879 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,849,168 GRT/33,215,317 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 134, cargo 111, chemical tanker 63, combination bulk 10, combination ore/oil 6, container 167, liquefied gas 28, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 4, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 295, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 33

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bermuda 12, Belgium 6, China 9, Denmark 29, Germany 8, Greece 1, Hong Kong 20, Indonesia 9, Japan 32, South Korea 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 9, Russia 1, Sweden 22, Thailand 22, Taiwan 17, UK 3, US 10 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $5 billion (FY00/01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.5% (FY00/01 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
1,316,815 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
959,636 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 August (1965)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, deepwater ports
Net migration rate 26.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders People's Action Party or PAP [GOH Chok Tong, secretary general] - the governing party; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]; Workers' Party or WP [J. B. JEYARETNAM]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,300,419 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.5% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Singapore
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 16, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 2.6 million (2000)
Railways total:
38.6 km

narrow gauge:
38.6 km 1.000-m gauge

there is a 83 km mass transit system with 48 stations
Religions Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Sex ratio at birth:
1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.78 male(s)/female

total population:
0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment:
major consideration given to serving business interests; excellent international service

excellent domestic facilities

submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.928 million (November 2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.333 million (November 2000)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2000)
Terrain lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Total fertility rate 1.22 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 3% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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