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Singapore (2004)

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Singapore 2004 year

Administrative divisions none
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.5% (male 370,660; female 345,713)

15-64 years: 75.8% (male 1,611,502; female 1,687,048)

65 years and over: 7.8% (male 149,452; female 189,518) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables, poultry, eggs, fish, ornamental fish
Airports 9 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Area total: 692.7 sq km

land: 682.7 sq km

water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Background Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
Birth rate 9.63 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $14.15 billion

expenditures: $15.61 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.6 billion (2003 est.)
Capital Singapore
Climate tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Coastline 193 km
Constitution 3 June 1959, amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Death rate 4.05 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $15.06 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin L. LAVIN

embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001

telephone: [65] 6476-9100

FAX: [65] 6476-9340
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee

chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100

FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876

consulate(s) general: San Francisco

consulate(s): New York
Disputes - international disputes with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation works, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih persist - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years
Economic aid - recipient NA
Economy - overview Singapore, a highly developed and successful free market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a high per capita GDP. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing. It was hard hit in 2001-03 by the global recession and the slump in the technology sector. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle but is unlikely to abandon efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, and global economic recovery should lead to much improved growth in 2004.
Electricity - consumption 28.35 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 30.48 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Environment - current issues industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Chinese 76.7%, Malay 14%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4%
Exchange rates Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001), 1.724 (2000), 1.695 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 August 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugan JAYAKUMAR (since 12 August 2004) and Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 August 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 28 August 1999 (next to be held by August 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN elected president unopposed
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $142.4 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners Malaysia 15.8%, US 14.3%, Hong Kong 10%, China 7%, Japan 6.7%, Taiwan 4.7%, Thailand 4.3%, South Korea 4.2% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
GDP purchasing power parity - $109.4 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: negligible

industry: 32.2%

services: 67.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.1% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Geography - note focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Highways total: 3,066 km

paved: 3,066 km (including 150 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, to be used as a transit point for Golden Triangle heroin and as a venue for money laundering
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $121.6 billion (2003 est.)
Imports 2.5 billion cu m

Note: from Indonesia and Malaysia (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Malaysia 16.8%, US 14.1%, Japan 12%, China 8.7%, Taiwan 5.1%, Thailand 4.3% (2003)
Independence 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
Industrial production growth rate 2.8% (2003 est.)
Industries electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Infant mortality rate total: 2.28 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.49 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.5% (2003 est.)
International organization participation APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Labor force 2.2 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 18%, construction 6%, transportation and communication 11%, financial, business, and other services 49%, other 16% (2003)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 98.36% (2001)
Languages Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official), English (official)
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who came closest to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency" member

elections: last held 3 November 2001 (next to be held not later than 25 June 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 75.3% (in contested constituencies), other 24.7%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SPP 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 81.53 years

male: 78.96 years

female: 84.29 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 96.6%

female: 88.6% (2002)
Location Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Merchant marine total: 900 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 23,065,290 GRT/36,393,317 DWT

by type: bulk 136, cargo 84, chemical tanker 96, combination bulk 4, combination ore/oil 8, container 186, liquefied gas 41, livestock carrier 3, multi-functional large load carrier 2, petroleum tanker 290, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 5, short-sea/passenger 1, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 32

foreign-owned: Australia 6, China 15, Denmark 32, Germany 18, Greece 12, Hong Kong 31, India 3, Indonesia 33, Japan 58, South Korea 13, Malaysia 31, Monaco 19, Norway 53, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 9, Russia 2, Slovenia 1, Sweden 12, Switzerland 5, Taiwan 44, Tanzania 1, Thailand 16, United Kingdom 15, United States 1

registered in other countries: 383 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.47 billion (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4.9% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,292,471 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 934,317 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 9 August (1965)
Nationality noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources fish, deepwater ports
Net migration rate 11.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 139 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders governing party: People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; opposition parties: Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [LING How Dong]; National Solidarity Party or NSP [vacant] (SDA group); Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong] (includes SPP, PKMS, NSP, SJP); Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Singapore Justice Party or SJP [Desmond LIM] (SDA group); Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS [Malik ISMAIL] (SDA group); Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong] (SDA group); Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia Lim Swee LIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,353,893 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 1.71% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Singapore
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 17, shortwave 2 (2003)
Religions Buddhist (Chinese), Muslim (Malays), Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Taoist, Confucianist
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: excellent service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities

international: country code - 65; submarine cables to Malaysia (Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 1,896,100 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,521,800 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 7 (2003)
Terrain lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Total fertility rate 1.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.8% (2003 est.)
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