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Rumunia (2008)

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Rumunia 2008 roku

 Rumunia
Podzial administracyjny 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15.6% (male 1,787,334/female 1,696,270)


15-64 years: 69.6% (male 7,721,160/female 7,793,063)


65 years and over: 14.7% (male 1,344,673/female 1,933,556) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Lotniska 61 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 25


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 12


914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 12


under 914 m: 22 (2007)
Terytorium total: 237,500 sq km


land: 230,340 sq km


water: 7,160 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Oregon
Tlo historyczne The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - dla centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy w 1856; they united w 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Rumunia. The country gained recognition of its independence w 1878. It joined the Allied Powers w Swiat War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Rumunia allied z the Axis powers and participated w the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Rumunia signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" w 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power w 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed w late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Rumunia joined NATO w 2004 and the EU w 2007.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.67 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $52.96 billion


expenditures: $56.85 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Bucharest


geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate; cold, cloudy winters z frequent snow and fog; sunny summers z frequent showers and thunderstorms
Linia brzegowa 225 km
Konstytucja 8 grudzien 1991; revision effective 29 pazdziernik 2003
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Rumunia


local long form: none


local short form: Rumunia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 11.81 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $85.86 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas F. TAUBMAN


embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest


mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)


telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300


FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA


chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852


FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje the ICJ gave Ukraina until grudzien 2006 to reply, and Rumunia until czerwiec 2007 to issue a rejoinder, w their dispute submitted w 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Rumunia also opposes Ukraina's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraina to the Black Sea
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $914.3 million (2004)
Ekonomia Rumunia, which joined the Unia Europejska on 1 styczen 2007, began the transition from Communism w 1989 z a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged w 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand w EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment have fueled strong Produkt krajowy brutto growth w recent years, but have led to large current account imbalances. Rumunia's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Rumunia's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to handicap its business environment. Inflation rose w 2007 dla the first time w eight years, driven w part by the depreciation of the currency, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought affecting food prices, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. Rumunia hopes to adopt the Euro by 2014.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 48.17 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 5.224 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.321 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 56.91 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Black Sea 0 m


highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution w south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Rumunian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Rosjan 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty lei per US dollar - 2.43 (2007), 2.809 (2006), 3 (2005), 3 (2004), 3 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 grudzien 2004); note - President Traian BASESCU was suspended by vote of parliament on 19 kwiecien 2007, but resumed his duties on 23 maj 2007 after a popular referendum confirmed that his impeachment should not stand


head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 listopad 2004 z runoff between the top two candidates held 12 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w listopad-grudzien 2009); prime minister appointed by the president z the consent of the Parliament


election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
Eksport 5.224 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $39.62 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 92,510 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
Eksport - partnerzy Wlochy 17.9%, Niemcy 15.7%, Turcja 7.7%, Francja 7.5%, Wegry 4.9%, UK 4.7% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered w the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Czad, also resembles the flags of Andora and Moldawia
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 7.9%


industry: 35.6%


services: 56.5% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldawia, and Ukraina
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.3%


highest 10%: 24.4% (2003)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound dla Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
Import 2.321 billion kWh (2005)
Import $63.16 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 6.234 billion cu m (2005)
Import 181,100 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, metals, agricultural products
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 15.2%, Wlochy 14.5%, Rosja 7.8%, Francja 6.5%, Turcja 4.9%, Chiny 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 9 maj 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 lipiec 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 marzec 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 grudzien 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 24.6 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 27.71 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 21.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.6% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 30,770 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed dla three-year terms by the president w consultation z the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Konstytucjaal Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, z three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Sila robocza 9.35 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 31.6%


industry: 30.7%


services: 37.7% (2004)
Granica total: 2,508 km


border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Wegry 443 km, Moldawia 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraina (north) 362 km, Ukraina (east) 169 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 39.49%


permanent crops: 1.92%


other: 58.59% (2005)
Jezyki Rumunian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (332 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 28 listopad 2004 (next expected to be held w listopad 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 28 listopad 2004 (next expected to be held listopad 2008)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 37.1%, PNL-PD 31.8%, PRM 13.6%, UDMR 6.2%, other 11.3%; seats by party - PSD 44, PNL 30, PD 20, PRM 20, PC 11, UDMR 10, independents 2; seats by party as of luty 2008 - PSD 44, PDL 27, PNL 24, PRM 16, PC 10, UDMR 10, independents 6; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 36.8%, PNL-PD 31.5%, PRM 13%, UDMR 6.2%, other 12.5%; seats by party - PSD 111, PNL 66, PD 45, PRM 34, UDMR 22, PC 20, ex-PRM (Ciontu Group) 12, PIN (GUSA Group) 3, independent 1, ethnic minorities 18; seats by party as of luty 2008 - PSD 104, PDL 73, PNL 56, PRM 25, UDMR 22, PC 16, independents 18, ethnic minorities 18
Zywotnosc total population: 71.91 years


male: 68.41 years


female: 75.62 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.3%


male: 98.4%


female: 96.3% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraina
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 19 ships (1000 GRT or over) 146,307 GRT/165,548 DWT


by type: cargo 13, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1


registered w other countries: 50 (Kambodza 1, Georgia 15, North Korea 6, Malta 10, Wyspy Marshalla 1, Panama 8, Sierra Leone 2, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1, Syria 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 4) (2007)
Wojsko Land Forces, Naval Forces, Rumunian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR), Special Operations (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.9% (2007 est.)
Swieto narodowe Unification Day (of Rumunia and Transylvania), 1 grudzien (1918)
Narodowosc noun: Rumunian(s)


adjective: Rumunian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, most severe w south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Surowce naturalne petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 3,674 km; oil 2,424 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative Party or PC [Daniela POPA] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians w Rumunia or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin POPESCU-TARICEANU]; Rumunia Mare Party (Greater Rumunia Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy w Rumunia or PDSR)
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow various human rights and professional associations
Ludnosc 22,276,056 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.127% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe 698 (frequency type NA) (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 11,385 km


broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge


standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge (3,888 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)
Religie Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.991 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.695 male(s)/female


total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially w wireless telephony


domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; liberalization w 2003 is transforming telecommunications; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 80 telephones per 100 persons


international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turcja; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate w Bucharest (2005)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 4.231 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 17.4 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 623 (plus 200 repeaters) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4.5% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,731 km


note: includes 1,075 km on Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals (2006)
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