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Niger (2002)

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Niger 2002 year

Administrative divisions 7 departments (departements, singular - departement) and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,594,932; female 2,503,867)

15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,594,307; female 2,706,164)

65 years and over: 2.3% (male 125,898; female 114,576) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Airports 26 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Not until 1993, 35 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999.
Birth rate 49.95 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $320 million, including $134 million from foreign sources

expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)
Capital Niamey
Climate desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution the constitution of January 1993 was revised by national referendum on 12 May 1996 and again by referendum on 18 July 1999
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Niger

conventional short form: Niger

local long form: Republique du Niger

local short form: Niger
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 22.25 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.6 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU

embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey

mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey

telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64

FAX: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA

chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
Disputes - international Niger and Benin have refered to the ICJ the dispute over l'Ete and 14 smaller islands in the Niger River, which has never been delimited; the Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint remains undemarcated; Lake Chad Basin Commission urges signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; Libya claims about 19,400 sq km in northern Niger in a currently dormant dispute
Economic aid - recipient $341 million (1997)

note: the IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative (1997)
Economy - overview Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01, the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms. However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative.
Electricity - consumption 404.6 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 200 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 220 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Niger River 200 m

highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m
Environment - current issues overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president

cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Mamadou TANDJA elected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 59.9%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 40.1%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $246 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities uranium ore 65%, livestock products, cowpeas, onions (1998 est.)
Exports - partners France 43.4%, Nigeria 35.0%, Spain 4.5%, US 3.9% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $8.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 41%

industry: 17%

services: 42% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $820 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Highways total: 10,100 km

paved: 798 km

unpaved: 9,302 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 35% (1995) (1995)
Imports 200 million kWh (2000)
Imports $331 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities consumer goods, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners France 16.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 13.4%, US 9.6%, Nigeria 7.6% (2000)
Independence 3 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Infant mortality rate 122.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.2% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 660 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
Labor force 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
Land boundaries total: 5,697 km

border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 3.94%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 96.06% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (83 seats, members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 24 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD-Nassara 38, CDS-Rahama 17, PNDS-Tarayya 16, RDP-Jama'a 8, ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 41.91 years

male: 42.04 years

female: 41.77 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 15.3%

male: 21.2%

female: 9.4% (2002)
Location Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, National Intervention and Security Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $20.9 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,270,793 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,227,994 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 108,993 (2002 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Nationality noun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum
Net migration rate -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA, chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 10,639,744 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 63% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 2.7% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios 680,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km (2002)
Religions Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger

domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 20,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 6,700 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (2002)
Terrain predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Total fertility rate 7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 300 km

note: the Niger River is navigable from Niamey to Gaya on the Benin frontier from mid-December through March
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