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Niger (2004)

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Administrative divisions 7 departments (departements, singular - departement) and 1 capital district* (capitale district); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.5% (male 2,749,039; female 2,643,479)

15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,799,125; female 2,925,133)

65 years and over: 2.1% (male 128,101; female 115,661) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Airports 27 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Not until 1993, 33 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa.
Birth rate 48.91 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $320 million - including $134 million from foreign sources

expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)
Capital Niamey
Climate desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution a new constitution was adopted 18 July 1999
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Niger

conventional short form: Niger

local long form: Republique du Niger

local short form: Niger
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 21.51 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $1.6 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU

embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey

mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey

telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64

FAX: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA

chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
Disputes - international Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and ICJ ad hoc judges have been selected to rule on disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over the lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
Economic aid - recipient $341 million (1997)
Economy - overview Niger is a poor, landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry, and reexport trade, and increasingly less on uranium, because of declining world demand. The 50% devaluation of the West African franc in January 1994 boosted exports of livestock, cowpeas, onions, and the products of Niger's small cotton industry. The government relies on bilateral and multilateral aid - which was suspended following the April 1999 coup d'etat - for operating expenses and public investment. In 2000-01, the World Bank approved a structural adjustment loan of $105 million to help support fiscal reforms. However, reforms could prove difficult given the government's bleak financial situation. The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Further disbursements of aid occurred in 2002. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources.
Electricity - consumption 325.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 100 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 242 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Niger River 200 m

highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m
Environment - current issues overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 581.2 (2003), 696.988 (2002), 733.039 (2001), 711.976 (2000), 615.699 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president

cabinet: 23-member Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; second round last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: TANDJA Mamadou reelected president; percent of vote - TANDJA Mamadou 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $280 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners France 42.2%, Nigeria 28.9%, Japan 17.2%, Spain 4.4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $9.062 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 39%

industry: 17%

services: 44% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $800 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Highways total: 10,100 km

paved: 798 km

unpaved: 9,302 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)
Imports 100 million kWh (2001)
Imports $400 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners France 16.4%, Cote d'Ivoire 13.8%, China 10.5%, Nigeria 7.7%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.9% (2003)
Independence 3 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA (2001 est.)
Industries uranium mining, cement, brick, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Infant mortality rate total: 122.66 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 126.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 118.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 660 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
Labor force 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
Land boundaries total: 5,697 km

border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 3.54%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 96.45% (2001)
Languages French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; note - expanded from 83 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD 47, CDS 22, PNDS 17, Social Democratic Rally 7 RDP 6i ANDP 5, Party for Socialism and Democarcy in Niger 1, other 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 42.18 years

male: 42.38 years

female: 41.97 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 17.6%

male: 25.8%

female: 9.7% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, National Intervention and Security Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $21.7 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,460,637 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,333,027 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 122,363 (2004 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Nationality noun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, petroleum
Net migration rate -0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ANDP [leader NA]; Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Mamadou TANDJA, chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger [leader NA]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [leader NA]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 11,360,538 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 63% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 2.67% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
Religions Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger

domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 22,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 24,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (2002)
Terrain predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Total fertility rate 6.83 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate NA (2002 est.)
Waterways 300 km

note: Niger River is navigable to Gaya between September and March (2004)
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