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Niger (2005)

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Niger 2005 year

Administrative divisions 8 regions (regions, singular - region) includes 1 capital district* (commune urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 2,811,539/female 2,704,498)

15-64 years: 50.6% (male 2,890,119/female 3,009,281)

65 years and over: 2.1% (male 130,953/female 119,547) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Airports 27 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1.267 million sq km

land: 1,266,700 sq km

water: 300 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Background Not until 1993, 33 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. A 1995 peace accord ended a five-year Tuareg insurgency in the north. Coups in 1996 and 1999 were followed by the creation of a National Reconciliation Council that effected a transition to civilian rule by December 1999. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa.
Birth rate 48.3 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $320 million - including $134 million from foreign sources

expenditures: $320 million, including capital expenditures of $178 million (2002 est.)
Capital Niamey
Climate desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution new constitution adopted 18 July 1999
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Niger

conventional short form: Niger

local long form: Republique du Niger

local short form: Niger
Death rate 21.33 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $1.6 billion (1999 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gail Dennise Thomas MATHIEU

embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey

mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey

telephone: [227] 72 26 61 through 72 26 64

FAX: [227] 73 31 67, 72-31-46
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph DIATTA

chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227

FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
Disputes - international Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute; much of Benin-Niger boundary, including tripoint with Nigeria, remains undemarcated, and states expect a ruling in 2005 from the ICJ over the disputed Niger and Mekrou River islands; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes Chad and Niger
Economic aid - recipient $341 million (1997)
Economy - overview Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world, a landlocked Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 3.3% population growth rate, and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut the economy. Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources.
Electricity - consumption 327.6 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 80 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 266.2 million kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Niger River 200 m

highest point: Mont Bagzane 2,022 m
Environment - current issues overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Hausa 56%, Djerma 22%, Fula 8.5%, Tuareg 8%, Beri Beri (Kanouri) 4.3%, Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche 1.2%, about 1,200 French expatriates
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President TANDJA Mamadou (since 22 December 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Hama AMADOU (since 31 December 1999) was appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president

cabinet: 27-member Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; second round last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: TANDJA Mamadou reelected president; percent of vote - TANDJA Mamadou 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2002)
Exports $280 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners France 41%, Nigeria 22.4%, Japan 15.3%, Switzerland 6%, Spain 4.1%, Ghana 4% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 39%

industry: 17%

services: 44% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $900 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.5% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world: northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Highways total: 10,100 km

paved: 798 km

unpaved: 9,302 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.8%

highest 10%: 35.4% (1995)
Imports 80 million kWh (2002)
Imports $400 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners France 14.4%, US 10.3%, French Polynesia 9.4%, Nigeria 7.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 7.5%, Japan 5.2%, China 5.1%, Thailand 4.1% (2004)
Independence 3 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA (2001 est.)
Industries uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Infant mortality rate total: 121.69 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 125.93 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 117.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 660 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch State Court or Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel
Labor force 70,000 receive regular wages or salaries (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90%, industry and commerce 6%, government 4%
Land boundaries total: 5,697 km

border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 3.54%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 96.45% (2001)
Languages French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; note - expanded from 83 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MNSD 47, CDS 22, PNDS 17, RSD 7, RDP 6, ANDP 5, Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger 1, other 8
Life expectancy at birth total population: 43.5 years

male: 43.54 years

female: 43.45 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 17.6%

male: 25.8%

female: 9.7% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Niger Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, National Air Force (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $33.3 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (2004)
National holiday Republic Day, 18 December (1958)
Nationality noun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Net migration rate -0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ANDP [leader NA]; Democratic Rally of the People-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [TANDJA Mamadou, chairman]; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDPS-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism-Tarayya or PNDS-Tarayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger [leader NA]; Rally for Social Democracy or RSD [Cheiffou AMADOU]; Union of Democratic Patriots and Progressives-Chamoua or UPDP-Chamoua [Professor Andre' SALIFOU, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 11,665,937 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line 63% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 2.63% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 4 (2001)
Religions Muslim 80%, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christian
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger

domestic: wire, radiotelephone communications, and microwave radio relay; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 22,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 24,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (2002)
Terrain predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Total fertility rate 6.75 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate NA (2002 est.)
Waterways 300 km

note: Niger River is navigable to Gaya between September and March (2004)
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