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Maroko (2008)

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Maroko 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

note: Maroko claims the territory of Sahara Zachodnia, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Maroko lie within Sahara Zachodnia; Maroko claims another region, Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, which falls entirely within Sahara Zachodnia
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31% (male 5,339,730/female 5,140,482)

15-64 years: 63.9% (male 10,750,240/female 10,815,470)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 740,686/female 970,567) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock
Lotniska 60 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 27

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 33

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Terytorium total: 446,550 sq km

land: 446,300 sq km

water: 250 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than California
Tlo historyczne In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, successive Moorish dynasties began to rule w Maroko. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad AL-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. In 1860, Hiszpania occupied northern Maroko and ushered w a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Maroko's sovereignty steadily erode; w 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle z Francja ended successfully w 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Maroko virtually annexed Sahara Zachodnia during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms w the 1990s resulted w the establishment of a bicameral legislature, which first met w 1997. Improvements w human rights have occurred and there is a largely free press. Despite the continuing reforms, ultimate authority remains w the hands of the monarch.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.64 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $19.39 billion

expenditures: $21.21 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Rabat

geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat Mediterranean, becoming more extreme w the interior
Linia brzegowa 1,835 km
Konstytucja 10 marzec 1972; revised 4 wrzesien 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) wrzesien 1996
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Kingdom of Maroko

conventional short form: Maroko

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form: Al Maghrib
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $16.86 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas T. RILEY

embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat

mailing address: PSC 74, Box 021, APO AE 09718

telephone: [212] (37) 76 22 65

FAX: [212] (37) 76 56 61

consulate(s) general: Casablanca
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Aziz MEKOUAR

chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979

FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161

consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje claims and administers Sahara Zachodnia whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained w effect since wrzesien 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Maroko protests Hiszpania's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Maroko's 2002 rejection of Hiszpania's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Maroko serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Hiszpania from North Africa
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $651.8 million (2005)
Ekonomia Moroccan economic policies brought macroeconomic stability to the country w the early 1990s but have not spurred growth sufficient to reduce unemployment - nearing 20% w urban areas - despite the Moroccan Government's ongoing efforts to diversify the economy. Maroko's Produkt krajowy brutto growth rate slowed to 2.1% w 2007 as a result of a draught that severely reduced agricultural output and necessitated wheat imports at rising world prices. Continued dependence on foreign energy and Maroko's inability to develop small and medium size enterprises also contributed to the slowdown. Moroccan authorities understand that reducing poverty and providing jobs are key to domestic security and development. In 2005, Maroko launched the National Initiative dla Human Development (INDH), a $2 billion social development plan to address poverty and unemployment and to improve the living conditions of the country's urban slums. Moroccan authorities are implementing reform efforts to open the economy to international investors. Despite structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, the Swiat Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is only fully convertible dla current account transactions. In 2000, Maroko entered an Association Agreement z the EU and, w 2006, entered a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) z the US. Long-term challenges include improving education and job prospects dla Maroko's youth, and closing the income gap between the rich and the poor, which the government hopes to achieve by increasing tourist arrivals and boosting competitiveness w textiles.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 20.67 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 802 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 21.37 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Kurs waluty Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 8.3563 (2007), 8.7722 (2006), 8.865 (2005), 8.868 (2004), 9.574 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 lipiec 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abbas EL FASSI (since 19 wrzesien 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $12.73 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 21,890 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary clothing and textiles, electric components, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, citrus fruits, vegetables, fish
Eksport - partnerzy Hiszpania 20.6%, Francja 20.5%, UK 4.8%, Wlochy 4.7%, Indie 4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal w the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors w Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated z the Arab states of the Persian gulf; design dates to 1912
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 15%

industry: 38.2%

services: 46.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 32 00 N, 5 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.9% (1999)
Narkotyki one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point dla cocaine from South America destined dla Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis
Import 802 million kWh (2005)
Import $22.15 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 186,100 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
Import - partnerzy Francja 17.5%, Hiszpania 13.9%, Arabia Saudyjska 6.9%, Chiny 6.9%, Wlochy 6.3%, Niemcy 6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 2 marzec 1956 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 38.85 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 42.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.1% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 14,450 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
Sila robocza 11.35 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 40%

industry: 15%

services: 45% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 2,017.9 km

border countries: Algieria 1,559 km, Sahara Zachodnia 443 km, Hiszpania (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Hiszpania (Melilla) 9.6 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 2%

other: 79% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
System prawny based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law systems; judicial review of legislative acts w Konstytucjaal Chamber of Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of a Chamber of Counselors (or upper house) (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates dla nine-year terms; one-third of the members are elected every three years) and Chamber of Representatives (or lower house) (325 seats; 295 members elected by multi-seat constituencies and 30 from national lists of women; members elected by popular vote dla five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 8 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w 2009); Chamber of Representatives - last held 7 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w 2012)

election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PI 17, MP 14, RNI 13, USFP 11, UC 6, PND 4, PPS 4, Al Ahd 4, other 17; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PI 52, PJD 46, MP 41, RNI 39, USFP 38, UC 27, PPS 17, FFD 9, MDS 9, Al Ahd 8, other 39
Zywotnosc total population: 71.22 years

male: 68.88 years

female: 73.67 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 52.3%

male: 65.7%

female: 39.6% (2004 census)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the North Ocean Atlantycki and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algieria and Sahara Zachodnia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 344,445 GRT/252,341 DWT

by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 6, container 8, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 14 (Francja 13, Niemcy 1) (2007)
Wojsko Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Navy (includes Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 5% (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 lipiec (1999)
Narodowosc noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan
Naturalne zagrozenia northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 720 km; oil 439 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives dla Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Konstytucjaal Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED]; Democratic and Niepodleglosc Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Niepodleglosc Party (Istiqlal) or PI [Abbas el FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine El OTHMANI]; Labor Party [Abdelkrim BENATIK]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Mustapha El MANSOURI]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Maroko or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Ludnosc 33,757,175 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 15% (2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.528% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,907 km

standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.994 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.763 male(s)/female

total population: 0.994 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal (as of styczen 2003)
System telefoniczny general assessment: modern system z all important capabilities; however, density is low z only 4 fixed lines available dla each 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is approaching 50 per 100 persons

domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

international: country code - 212; landing point dla the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Hiszpania, and Sahara Zachodnia; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algieria; participant w Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algieria and Tunezja
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.266 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 16.005 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu northern coast and interior are mountainous z large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.62 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 15% (2007 est.)
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