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Morocco (2001)

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Morocco 2001 year

Administrative divisions 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara; decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature in March 1997 creating many new provinces/regions; specific details and scope of the reorganization not yet available
Age structure 0-14 years:
34.39% (male 5,368,784; female 5,170,891)

15-64 years:
60.93% (male 9,270,095; female 9,402,561)

65 years and over:
4.68% (male 646,567; female 786,407) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock
Airports 69 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
11 (2000 est.)
Area total:
446,550 sq km

446,300 sq km

250 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997.
Birth rate 24.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$9.6 billion

$8.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (2001 est.)
Capital Rabat
Climate Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Coastline 1,835 km
Constitution 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996
Country name conventional long form:
Kingdom of Morocco

conventional short form:

local long form:
Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form:
Al Maghrib
Currency Moroccan dirham (MAD)
Death rate 5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $18.4 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Edward M. GABRIEL

2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat

mailing address:
PSC 74, Box 3, APO AE 90718

[212] (37) 76 22 65

[212] (37) 76 56 61

consulate(s) general:
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Abdullah MAAROUFI

1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982

[1] (202) 265-0161

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is unresolved and the UN is attempting to hold a referendum on the issue; the UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September 1991; Spain controls five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco - the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas
Economic aid - recipient $565.6 million (1995)
Economy - overview Morocco faces the problems typical of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. Following structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is now fully convertible for current account transactions, and reforms of the financial sector have been implemented. Drought conditions depressed activity in the key agricultural sector and contributed to a stagnant economy in 1999 and 2000. During that time, however, Morocco reported large foreign exchange inflows from the sale of a mobile telephone license and partial privatization of the state-owned telecommunications company. Favorable rainfalls have led Morocco to predict a growth of 1% for 2001. Formidable long-term challenges include: servicing the external debt; preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU; and improving education and attracting foreign investment to boost living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youthful population.
Electricity - consumption 13.441 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 705 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 13.695 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point:
Jbel Toubkal 4,165 m
Environment - current issues land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Exchange rates Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 10.590 (January 2001), 10.626 (2000), 9.804 (1999), 9.604 (1998), 9.527 (1997), 8.716 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)

head of government:
Prime Minister Abderrahmane YOUSSOUFI (since 14 March 1998)

Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities phosphates and fertilizers, food and beverages, minerals
Exports - partners France 35%, Spain 9%, UK 8%, Germany 7%, US 5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $105 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


52% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 32 00 N, 5 00 W
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
57,847 km

30,254 km (including 327 km of expressways)

27,593 km (1998)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
30.9% (1998-99)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of hashish; trafficking on the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe
Imports 705 million kWh (1999)
Imports $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)
Imports - commodities semiprocessed goods, machinery and equipment, food and beverages, consumer goods, fuel
Imports - partners France 32%, Spain 12%, Italy 7%, Germany 6%, UK 6% (1999)
Independence 2 March 1956 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 0.5% (1999 est.)
Industries phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate 48.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 12,580 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
Labor force 11 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
2,017.9 km

border countries:
Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

11% (1993 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
Legal system based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

Chamber of Counselors - last held 15 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2002); Chamber of Representatives - last held 14 November 1997 (next to be held NA November 2002)

election results:
Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - USFP 57, UC 50, RNI 46, MP 40, MDS 32, IP 32, MNP 19, PND 10, MPCD 9, PPS 9, FFD 9, PSD 5, OADP 4, PA 2, PDI 1

CDT, UTM, UGTM, UNMT are all labor unions listed under Political pressure groups and leaders; see explanation in the description of Parliament
Life expectancy at birth total population:
69.43 years

67.2 years

71.76 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


31% (1995 est.)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 223,052 GRT/272,786 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, container 5, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 8, short-sea passenger 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.4 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4% (FY99/00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
8,182,073 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
5,160,374 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
348,380 (2001 est.)
National holiday Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Net migration rate -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 362 km; petroleum products 491 km (abandoned); natural gas 241 km
Political parties and leaders Action Party or PA [Muhammad IDRISS]; Constitutional Union or UC [leader NA]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Thami KHIARI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Issa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Party for Independence or PDI [Thami EL-OUAZZANI, Said BOUACHRINE]; Istiqlal Party or IP [Abbas El-FASSI]; Labor Party or UT [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or PND [Mohamed Arsalane EL-JADIDI]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; Organization of Democratic and Popular Action or OADP [Mohamed BEN SAID ait Idder]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Moulay Ismail ALAOUI]; Popular Constitutional and Democratic Movement or MPCD (has become Party of Justice and Development or PJD) [Dr. Abdelkarim KHATIB]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Abd ar-Rahman EL-YOUSSOUFI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Association of Popular Trade Unions or ADP [leader NA]; Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; Democratic National Trade Union or USND [leader NA]; Democratic Trade Union or SD [leader NA]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Labor Union Commissions or CS [leader NA]; Moroccan National Workers Union or UNMT [leader NA]; Moroccan Union of Workers or UTM [Mahjoub BENSEDIQ]; Party of Shura and Istiqla [Abdelwaheb MAASH]
Population 30,645,305 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 19% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.71% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)
Radios 6.64 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,907 km

standard gauge:
1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified; 540 km double track)
Religions Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.82 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
modern system with all important capabilities; however density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons

good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.391 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 116,645 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Total fertility rate 3.05 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 23% (1999 est.)
Waterways none
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