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Morocco (2007)

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Morocco 2007 year

Administrative divisions 15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

note: Morocco claims the territory of Western Sahara, the political status of which is considered undetermined by the US Government; portions of the regions Guelmim-Es Smara and Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra as claimed by Morocco lie within Western Sahara; Morocco claims another region, Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, which falls entirely within Western Sahara
Age structure 0-14 years: 31% (male 5,339,730/female 5,140,482)

15-64 years: 63.9% (male 10,750,240/female 10,815,470)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 740,686/female 970,567) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock
Airports 60 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 27

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 33

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Area total: 446,550 sq km

land: 446,300 sq km

water: 250 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background In 788, about a century after the Arab conquest of North Africa, successive Moorish dynasties began to rule in Morocco. In the 16th century, the Sa'adi monarchy, particularly under Ahmad AL-MANSUR (1578-1603), repelled foreign invaders and inaugurated a golden age. In 1860, Spain occupied northern Morocco and ushered in a half century of trade rivalry among European powers that saw Morocco's sovereignty steadily erode; in 1912, the French imposed a protectorate over the country. A protracted independence struggle with France ended successfully in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier and most Spanish possessions were turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature, which first met in 1997. Lower house elections were last held in September 2002, while upper house elections were last held in September 2006.
Birth rate 21.64 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $16.45 billion

expenditures: $18.98 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Rabat

geographic coordinates: 34 01 N, 6 49 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Coastline 1,835 km
Constitution 10 March 1972; revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco

conventional short form: Morocco

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form: Al Maghrib
Death rate 5.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $16.63 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas T. RILEY

embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat

mailing address: PSC 74, Box 021, APO AE 09718

telephone: [212] (37) 76 22 65

FAX: [212] (37) 76 56 61

consulate(s) general: Casablanca
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Aziz MEKOUAR

chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979

FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international claims and administers Western Sahara whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration and refugee interdiction, since Morocco's 2002 rejection of Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Morocco serves as one of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $651.8 million (2005)
Economy - overview Moroccan economic policies brought macroeconomic stability to the country in the early 1990s but have not spurred growth sufficient to reduce unemployment that nears 20% in urban areas. Poverty has increased due to the volatile nature of GDP, Morocco's continued dependence on foreign energy, and its inability to promote the growth of small and medium size enterprises. However, GDP growth rebounded to 6.7% in 2006 due to high rainfall, which resulted in a strong second harvest. Despite structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, the World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is only fully convertible for current account transactions and Morocco's financial sector is rudimentary. Moroccan authorities understand that reducing poverty and providing jobs is key to domestic security and development. In 2004, Moroccan authorities instituted measures to boost foreign direct investment and trade by signing a free trade agreement with the US, which entered into force in January 2006, and sold government shares in the state telecommunications company and in the largest state-owned bank. Long-term challenges include preparing the economy for freer trade with the US and European Union, improving education and job prospects for Morocco's youth, and raising living standards, which the government hopes to achieve by increasing tourist arrivals and boosting competitiveness in textiles.
Electricity - consumption 20.67 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 802 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 21.37 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m
Environment - current issues land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Exchange rates Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 8.7722 (2006), 8.865 (2005), 8.868 (2004), 9.574 (2003), 11.021 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 July 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abbas EL FASSI (since 19 September 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $11.39 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 21,890 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities clothing, fish, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, fruits, vegetables
Exports - partners France 21.1%, Spain 20.2%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.6%, India 4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Sulayman's (Solomon's) seal in the center of the flag; red and green are traditional colors in Arab flags, although the use of red is more commonly associated with the Arab states of the Persian gulf; design dates to 1912
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17.3%

industry: 37%

services: 45.7% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 9.4% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 32 00 N, 5 00 W
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.9% (1999)
Illicit drugs one of the world's largest producers of illicit hashish; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; significant consumer of cannabis
Imports 802 million kWh (2005)
Imports $20.96 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 186,100 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
Imports - partners France 17.6%, Spain 13.5%, Saudi Arabia 6.9%, China 6.9%, Italy 6.4%, Germany 6% (2006)
Independence 2 March 1956 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2004 est.)
Industries phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 38.85 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 42.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 34.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.4% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 14,450 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
Labor force 10.86 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 40%

industry: 15%

services: 45% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,017.9 km

border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km
Land use arable land: 19%

permanent crops: 2%

other: 79% (2005)
Languages Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
Legal system based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law systems; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of a Chamber of Counselors (or upper house) (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are elected every three years) and Chamber of Representatives (or lower house) (325 seats; 295 members elected by multi-seat constituencies and 30 from national lists of women; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 6 October 2003 (election moved to 2007); Chamber of Representatives - last held 7 September 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RNI 42, MDS 33, UC 28, MP 27, PND 21, PI 21, USFP 16, MNP 15, PA 13, FFD 12, other 42; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PJD 10.9%, PI 10.7%, RNI 9.7%, MP 9.3%, USFP 8.9%, UC 7.3%, Al Ahd 5.5%, PPS 5.4%, FFD 4.5%, MDS 3.7%, other 24.1%; seats by party - PI 52, PJD 46, MP 41, RNI 41, USFP 38, UC 27, PPS 17, Al Ahd 14, FFD 9, MDS 9, other 31
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.22 years

male: 68.88 years

female: 73.67 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 52.3%

male: 65.7%

female: 39.6% (2004 census)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 35 ships (1000 GRT or over) 344,445 GRT/252,341 DWT

by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 6, container 8, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 14 (France 13, Germany 1) (2007)
Military branches Royal Armed Forces (Forces Armees Royales, FAR): Royal Moroccan Army (includes Air Defense), Navy (includes Marines), Royal Moroccan Air Force (Force Aerienne Royale Marocaine) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5% (2003 est.)
National holiday Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Nationality noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan
Natural hazards northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Net migration rate -0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 715 km; oil 285 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives for Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Constitutional Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED]; Democratic and Independence Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Independence Party (Istiqlal) or PI [Abbas el FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Saad Eddine El OTHMANI]; Labor Party [Abdelkrim BENATIK]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohand LAENSER]; Popular Movement Union or UMP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Mohammed El-YAZGHI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Population 33,757,175 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 19% (2005 est.)
Population growth rate 1.528% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)
Railways total: 1,907 km

standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.994 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.763 male(s)/female

total population: 0.994 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (as of January 2003)
Telephone system general assessment: modern system with all important capabilities; however, density is low with only 4 main lines available for each 100 persons

domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

international: country code - 212; 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.266 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 16.005 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Total fertility rate 2.62 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.7% (2006 est.)
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