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Morocco (2003)

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Morocco 2003 year

Administrative divisions 37 provinces and 2 wilayas*; Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal, Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane, Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Larache, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit; three additional provinces of Ad Dakhla (Oued Eddahab), Boujdour, and Es Smara as well as parts of Tan-Tan and Laayoune fall within Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara

note: as part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature 16 new regions (provided below) were created although full details and scope of the reorganization are limited : Casablanca, Chaouia-Ourdigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulmane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tangier-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.2% (male 5,360,666; female 5,162,168)

15-64 years: 62% (male 9,766,222; female 9,876,647)

65 years and over: 4.8% (male 676,357; female 847,205) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, wheat, citrus, wine, vegetables, olives; livestock
Airports 63 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 26

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 37

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Area total: 446,550 sq km

land: 446,300 sq km

water: 250 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997.
Birth rate 23.26 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $13.8 billion

expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (2001 est.)
Capital Rabat
Climate Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Coastline 1,835 km
Constitution 10 March 1972, revised 4 September 1992, amended (to create bicameral legislature) September 1996
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco

conventional short form: Morocco

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

local short form: Al Maghrib
Currency Moroccan dirham (MAD)
Death rate 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $17.7 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ms. Margaret TUTWILER

embassy: 2 Avenue de Mohamed El Fassi, Rabat

mailing address: PSC 74, Box 021, APO AE 90718

telephone: [212] (37) 76 22 65

FAX: [212] (37) 76 56 61

consulate(s) general: Casablanca
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Aziz MEKOUAR

chancery: 1601 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 462-7979 through 7982

FAX: [1] (202) 265-0161

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed and parties thus far have rejected other proposals; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco also rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction; Morocco allowed Spanish fishermen to fish temporarily off the coast of Western Sahara after an oil spill soiled Spanish fishing grounds
Economic aid - recipient $565.6 million (1995)
Economy - overview Morocco faces the problems typical of developing countries - restraining government spending, reducing constraints on private activity and foreign trade, and achieving sustainable economic growth. Following structural adjustment programs supported by the IMF, World Bank, and the Paris Club, the dirham is now fully convertible for current account transactions, and reforms of the financial sector have been implemented. Droughts depressed activity in the key agricultural sector and contributed to a stagnant economy in 1999 and 2000. During that time, however, Morocco reported large foreign exchange inflows from the sale of a mobile telephone license and partial privatization of the state-owned telecommunications company. Favorable rainfall in 2001 led to a growth of 6.5%. Good harvest conditions continued to support GDP growth in 2002. Formidable long-term challenges include: servicing the external debt; modernizing the industrial sector; preparing the economy for freer trade with the EU and US; and improving education and attracting foreign investment to boost living standards and job prospects for Morocco's youth.
Electricity - consumption 14.61 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 2.2 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 13.35 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 95.4%

hydro: 4.6%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sebkha Tah -55 m

highest point: Jbel Toubkal 4,165 m
Environment - current issues land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from farming of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; oil pollution of coastal waters
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Exchange rates Moroccan dirhams per US dollar - 11.02 (2002), 11.3 (2001), 10.63 (2000), 9.8 (1999), 9.6 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: King MOHAMED VI (since 23 July 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Driss JETTOU (since 9 October 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $7.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities clothing, fish, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers (including phosphates), petroleum products, fruits, vegetables
Exports - partners France 26.5%, Spain 14.3%, UK 7.9%, Germany 5.8%, Italy 5.6%, US 4.8% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of Islam
GDP purchasing power parity - $121.8 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15%

industry: 33%

services: 52% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $3,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 32 00 N, 5 00 W
Geography - note strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 57,707 km

paved: 32,547 km (including 481 km of expressways)

unpaved: 25,160 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 30.9% (1998-99)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of hashish; trafficking increasing for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments of hashish mostly directed to Western Europe; transit point for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe
Imports 2.2 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $10.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities crude petroleum, textile fabric, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas and electricity, transistors, plastics
Imports - partners France 20.9%, Spain 12.6%, Italy 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, US 4.6%, UK 4.1%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2002)
Independence 2 March 1956 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 0.5% (1999 est.)
Industries phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 44.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 48.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 40.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.6% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 12,910 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
Labor force 11 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 50%, services 35%, industry 15% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,017.9 km

border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Western Sahara 443 km, Spain (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Spain (Melilla) 9.6 km
Land use arable land: 20.12%

permanent crops: 2.05%

other: 77.83% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
Legal system based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Chamber of Counselors (270 seats; members elected indirectly by local councils, professional organizations, and labor syndicates for nine-year terms; one-third of the members are renewed every three years) and a lower house or Chamber of Representatives (325 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: Chamber of Counselors - last held 15 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2003); Chamber of Representatives - last held 27 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: Chamber of Counselors - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - USFP 50, PI 48, PJD 42, RNI 41, MP 27, MNP 18, UC 16, FFD 12, PND 12, PPS 11, UD 10, MDS 7, PSD 6, Al Ahd 5, ADL 4, GSU 3, PML 3, PRD 3, FC 2, PDI 2, PED 2, CNI 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.04 years

male: 67.77 years

female: 72.41 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.7%

male: 64.1%

female: 39.4% (2003 est.)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 247,591 GRT/268,356 DWT

ships by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 7, container 6, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea passenger 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Hong Kong 1, Netherlands 2, Norway 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches Royal Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie, Auxiliary Forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.4 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 4% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 8,595,797 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,411,846 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 351,671 (2003 est.)
National holiday Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)
Nationality noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan
Natural hazards northern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Net migration rate -1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 695 km; oil 285 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Action Party or PA [Muhammad EL IDRISSI]; Alliance of Liberties or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; Annahj Addimocrati or Annahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Avant Garde Social Democratic Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Citizen Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizen's Initiatives for Development [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Constitutional Union or UC [Mohamed ABIED (interim)]; Democratic and Independence Party or PDI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Front of Democratic Forces or FFD [Thami EL KHYARI]; Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) or PI [Abbas El FASSI]; Justice and Development Party (formerly the Constitutional and Democratic Popular Movement) or PJD [Abdelkrim EL KHATIB]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Ahmed OSMAN]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Parti Al Ahd or Al Ahd [Najib EL OUAZZANI, chairman]; Party of Progress and Socialism or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Party of Renewal and Equity or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Party of the Unified Socialist Left or GSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Abderrahman EL-YOUSSOUFI]
Political pressure groups and leaders Democratic Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Morocco or UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Population 31,689,265 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 19% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.64% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Agadir, El Jadida, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador, Rabat, Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla
Radio broadcast stations AM 27, FM 25, shortwave 6 (1998)
Railways total: 1,907 km

standard gauge: 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (1,003 km electrified) (2002)
Religions Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal (as of January 2003)
Telephone system general assessment: modern system with all important capabilities; however density is low with only 4.6 main lines available for each 100 persons

domestic: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; Internet available but expensive; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay

international: 7 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (1998)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.391 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 116,645 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 35 (plus 66 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Total fertility rate 2.89 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 19% (2002 est.)
Waterways none
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