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Madagaskar (2008)

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Madagaskar 2008 roku

 Madagaskar
Podzial administracyjny 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 43.9% (male 4,297,985/female 4,243,369)


15-64 years: 53% (male 5,117,874/female 5,190,032)


65 years and over: 3.1% (male 270,411/female 329,144) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Lotniska 104 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 27


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 77


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 41


under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Terytorium total: 587,040 sq km


land: 581,540 sq km


water: 5,500 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Tlo historyczne Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagaskar became a French colony w 1896, but regained its independence w 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, w the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In kwiecien 2002, the High Konstytucjaal Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA is now w his second term following a landslide victory w the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 38.6 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.22 billion


expenditures: $1.555 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Antananarivo


geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid w south
Linia brzegowa 4,828 km
Konstytucja 19 sierpien 1992 by national referendum
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Madagaskar


conventional short form: Madagaskar


local long form: Republique de Madagaskar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara


local short form: Madagaskar/Madagasikara


former: Malagasy Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.6 billion (2002)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador R. Niels MARQUARDT


embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101


mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo


telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56


FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Jocelyn Bertin RADIFERA


chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526


FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, and Juan de Nova (all administered by Francja)
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $929.2 million (2005)
Ekonomia Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagaskar has since the mid 1990s followed a Swiat Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting dla more than one-fourth of Produkt krajowy brutto and employing 80% of the population. Eksport of apparel have boomed w recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the US. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop w Produkt krajowy brutto that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy dla the next few years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 973.2 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 1.046 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m


highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated z raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Malayo-Indonezjan (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonezjan, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indien, Creole, Comoran
Kurs waluty Malagasy ariary per US dollar - 1,880 (2007), 2,161.4 (2006), 2,003 (2005), 1,868.9 (2004), 1,238.3 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 maj 2002)


head of government: Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 3 grudzien 2006 (next to be held w grudzien 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.027 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 363.9 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 32.1%, US 25.3%, Niemcy 6.1%, Wlochy 5%, UK 4.1% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green z a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 27.3%


industry: 15.8%


services: 56.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambik Channel
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.9%


highest 10%: 36.6% (2001)
Narkotyki illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly dla domestic consumption; transshipment point dla heroin
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $2.005 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 17,830 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Import - partnerzy Francja 14.5%, Chiny 12%, Iran 9.3%, Mauritius 5.6%, Hong Kong 4.7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 26 czerwiec 1960 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 57.02 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 62.09 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 51.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 10% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 10,860 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Konstytucjaal Court or Haute Cour Konstytucjanelle
Sila robocza 7.3 million (2000)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 5.03%


permanent crops: 1.02%


other: 93.95% (2005)
Jezyki English (official), French (official), Malagasy (official)
System prawny based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats - reduced from 160 seats by an kwiecien 2007 national referendum; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the seats filled by regional assemblies; the remaining one-third of seats appointed by the president; to serve four-year terms)


elections: National Assembly - last held 23 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 106, LEADER/Fanilo 1, independents 20
Zywotnosc total population: 62.14 years


male: 60.23 years


female: 64.1 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 68.9%


male: 75.5%


female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Africa, island w the Ocean Indyjski, east of Mozambik
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Flota handlowa total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,896 GRT/18,466 DWT


by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2 (2007)
Wojsko People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 26 czerwiec (1960)
Narodowosc noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)


adjective: Malagasy
Naturalne zagrozenia periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Surowce naturalne graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Association dla the Rebirth of Madagaskar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party dla Union w Madagaskar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action dla National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagaskar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Committee dla the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee dla National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Ludnosc 19,448,815 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 3.008% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 854 km


narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.013 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.986 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.822 male(s)/female


total population: 0.992 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: system is above average dla the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed; planning to add 50,000 new private-subscriber fixed lines beginning w 2005


domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density only about 7 per 100 persons


international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrajn; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 129,800 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.046 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains w center
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 5.24 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 600 km (2006)
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