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Madagascar (2001)

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Madagascar 2001 year

Administrative divisions 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Age structure 0-14 years:
45.02% (male 3,607,803; female 3,587,532)

15-64 years:
51.77% (male 4,093,720; female 4,180,430)

65 years and over:
3.21% (male 239,839; female 273,239) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Airports 130 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
43 (2000 est.)
Area total:
587,040 sq km

581,540 sq km

5,500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Background Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997 in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency.
Birth rate 42.66 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$553 million

$735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Antananarivo
Climate tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Coastline 4,828 km
Constitution 19 August 1992 by national referendum
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Madagascar

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republique de Madagascar

local short form:

Malagasy Republic
Currency Malagasy franc (MGF)
Death rate 12.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $4.4 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Shirley E. BARNES

14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

mailing address:
B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

[261] (20) 22-212-57

[261] (20) 22-345-39
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:

2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 265-5525, 5526

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Economic aid - recipient $838 million (1997)
Economy - overview Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings. Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations, a decline in world coffee prices, and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. The extent of government reforms, outside financial aid, and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth. For 2001, growth should again be about 5%.
Electricity - consumption 753.3 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 810 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Maromokotro 2,876 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Exchange rates Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,656.3 (November 2000), 6,283.8 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998), 5,090.9 (1997), 4,061.3 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997)

head of government:
Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998)

Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA November 2001); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly

election results:
Didier RATSIRAKA elected president; percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50.7%, Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49.3%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $538 million (f.o.b., 1998)
Exports - commodities coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners France 41%, US 19%, Germany 13%, UK 8%, Japan 6% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


56% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Geography - note world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
Highways total:
49,837 km

5,781 km

44,056 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
36.7% (1993)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $693 million (f.o.b., 1998)
Imports - commodities intermediate manufactures, capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners France 34%, Hong Kong 6%, China 6%, Japan 5%, Singapore 4% (1999)
Independence 26 June 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Industries meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Infant mortality rate 83.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10% (1999 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Labor force 7 million (1999)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

14% (1993 est.)
Languages French (official), Malagasy (official)
Legal system based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms

National Assembly - last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - AREMA 63, LEADER/Fanilo 16, AVI 14, RPSD 11, AFFA 6, MFM 3, AKFM/Fanavaozana 3, GRAD/Iloafo 1, Fihaonana 1, independents 32
Life expectancy at birth total population:
55.35 years

53.08 years

57.68 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


73% (1990 est.)
Location Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,819 GRT/34,173 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2 (2000 est.)
Military branches Popular Armed Forces (includes Intervention Forces, Development Forces, Aeronaval Forces - includes Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
Military expenditures - dollar figure $29 million (FY94)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY94)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
3,640,554 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
2,159,767 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
153,856 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Nationality noun:
Malagasy (singular and plural)

Natural hazards periodic cyclones
Natural resources graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Action, Truth, Development, and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]; Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]; Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo; Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]; Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]; Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Population 15,982,563 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (1994 est.)
Population growth rate 3.02% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Radio broadcast stations AM 2 (plus 8 repeater stations), FM 7, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 3.05 million (1997)
Railways total:
883 km

narrow gauge:
883 km 1.000-m gauge (1994)
Religions indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.88 male(s)/female

total population:
0.99 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
system is above average for the region

open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links

submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 43,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Total fertility rate 5.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways note:
of local importance only
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