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Madagascar (2003)

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Madagascar 2003 year

Administrative divisions 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Age structure 0-14 years: 45% (male 3,822,823; female 3,807,958)

15-64 years: 51.9% (male 4,366,748; female 4,452,686)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 243,411; female 286,118) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Airports 121 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 29

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 92

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 46

under 914 m: 44 (2002)
Area total: 587,040 sq km

land: 581,540 sq km

water: 5,500 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Background Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.
Birth rate 42.16 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $553 million

expenditures: $735 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Antananarivo
Climate tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Coastline 4,828 km
Constitution 19 August 1992 by national referendum
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar

conventional short form: Madagascar

local long form: Republique de Madagascar

local short form: Madagascar

former: Malagasy Republic
Currency Malagasy franc (MGF)
Death rate 11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $4.6 billion (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT

embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101

mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo

telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56

FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rajaonarivony NARISOA

chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526

FAX: [1] (202) 483-7603

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France)
Economic aid - recipient $838 million (1997)
Economy - overview Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank and IMF led policy of privatization and liberalization, which has placed the country on a slow and steady growth path. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for one-fourth of GDP and employing four-fifths of the population. Export earnings primarily are earned in the small industrial sector, which features textile manufacturing and agriculture processing. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel are serious concerns. The separatist political crisis of 2002 undermined macroeconomic stability, with the estimated drop in output being subject to a wide margin of error. Poverty reduction will be the centerpiece of economic policy for the next few years.
Electricity - consumption 772.1 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 830.2 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 36.1%

hydro: 63.9%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Exchange rates Malagasy francs per US dollar - 6,831.96 (2002), 6,588.49 (2001), 6,767.48 (2000), 6,283.77 (1999), 5,441.4 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Jacques SYLLA (27 May 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 December 2001 (next to be held NA November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly

election results: percent of vote - Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 40.89%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 46.21%; note - on 29 April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner by 51.5% after a recount; RATSIRIKA's prime minister was put under house arrest on 27 May 2002, and SYLLA was appointed the new prime minister by President RAVALOMANANA
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $700 million f.o.b. (2002)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar; cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners France 34%, US 24.6%, Netherlands 6%, Germany 5.9%, Mauritius 4% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.59 billion (2002)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 25%

industry: 12%

services: 63% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $800 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -11.9% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Geography - note world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
Highways total: 49,827 km

paved: 5,780 km

unpaved: 44,047 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $985 million f.o.b. (2002)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners France 17.2%, Iran 11%, Mauritius 10.6%, Bahrain 9.4%, Hong Kong 6.9%, South Africa 5.9%, China 4.1% (2002)
Independence 26 June 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2000 est.)
Industries meat processing, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 80.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 88.63 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 71.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.4% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 10,900 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Labor force 7.3 million (2000)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 4.41%

permanent crops: 0.93%

other: 94.66% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official), Malagasy (official)
Legal system based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (160 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms

elections: National Assembly - last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TIM 103, FP 22, AREMA 3, LEADER/Fanilo 2, RPSD 5, others 3, independents 22
Life expectancy at birth total population: 56.14 years

male: 53.82 years

female: 58.53 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 68.9%

male: 75.5%

female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or 100 NM from the 2,500-m deep isobath

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 14,865 GRT/17,936 DWT

ships by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Military branches People's Armed Forces (comprising Intervention Force, Development Force, Aeronaval [Navy and Air] Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential Security Regiment
Military expenditures - dollar figure $52.3 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,880,332 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,300,587 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 163,864 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Nationality noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)

adjective: Malagasy
Natural hazards periodic cyclones
Natural resources graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [leader NA]; National Union or FP [leader NA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
Population 16,979,744 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 71% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 3.03% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Antsiranana, Antsohimbondrona, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Radio broadcast stations AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Railways total: 732 km

narrow gauge: 732 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
Religions indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: system is above average for the region

domestic: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links connect regions

international: submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Telephones - main lines in use 55,000 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 63,100 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Total fertility rate 5.73 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.9% (1998)
Waterways of local importance only
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