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Libia (2008)

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Libia 2008 roku

 Libia
Podzial administracyjny 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 33.4% (male 1,029,096/female 985,606)


15-64 years: 62.4% (male 1,940,287/female 1,827,429)


65 years and over: 4.2% (male 124,892/female 129,604) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Lotniska 141 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 60


over 3,047 m: 23


2,438 to 3,047 m: 6


1,524 to 2,437 m: 23


914 to 1,523 m: 6


under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 81


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 15


914 to 1,523 m: 41


under 914 m: 18 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,759,540 sq km


land: 1,759,540 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Alaska
Tlo historyczne The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks from the area around Tripoli w 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated w Swiat War II. Libia then passed to UN administration and achieved independence w 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived w part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libian people themselves w a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libia, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning w 1973, he engaged w military operations w northern Czad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence w Czadian politics - but was forced to retreat w 1987. UN sanctions w 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships z Europe. UN sanctions were suspended w kwiecien 1999 and finally lifted w wrzesien 2003 after Libia accepted responsibility dla the Lockerbie bombing. In grudzien 2003, Libia announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism, and QADHAFI has made significant strides w normalizing relations z western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe w 15 years when he traveled to Brussels w kwiecien 2004. Libia has responded w good faith to legal cases brought against it w US courts dla terrorist acts that predate its renunciation of violence. Claims dla compensation w the Lockerbie bombing, LaBelle disco bombing, and UTA 772 bombing cases are ongoing. The US rescinded Libia's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism w czerwiec 2006. In late 2007, Libia was elected by the General Assembly to a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council dla the 2008-2009 term.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 26.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $39.62 billion


expenditures: $19.51 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tripoli


geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Linia brzegowa 1,770 km
Konstytucja none; note - following the wrzesien 1969 military overthrow of the Libian government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution z the Konstytucjaal Proclamation w grudzien 1969; w marzec 1977, Libia adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libian Arab Jamahiriya


conventional short form: Libia


local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma


local short form: none
Wspolczynnik zgonow 3.47 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.837 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires J. Christopher Stevens


embassy: Corinthia Bab Africa Hotel, Souq At-Tlat Al-Qadim, Tripoli


mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850


telephone: [218] 21-335-1848
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ali Suleiman AUJALI


chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037


telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601


FAX: [1] (202) 944-9060
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Libia has claimed more than 32,000 sq km w southeastern Algieria and about 25,000 sq km w the Tommo region of Niger w a currently dormant dispute; various Czadian rebels from the Aozou region reside w southern Libia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $24.44 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia The Libian economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of Produkt krajowy brutto, and 60% of public sector wages. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled z a small population give Libia one of the highest per capita Produkt krajowy bruttos w Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libian officials w the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted w wrzesien 2003 and as Libia announced w grudzien 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libia were removed w kwiecien 2004, helping Libia attract more foreign direct investment, mostly w the energy sector. Libian oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2015. Libia faces a long road ahead w liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying dla WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans dla privatization - are laying the groundwork dla a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account dla more than 20% of Produkt krajowy brutto, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libia imports about 75% of its food. Libia's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested w desalinization research to meet growing water demands.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 18.18 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 21.15 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m


highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme w the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egiptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indiens, and Tunezjans)
Kurs waluty Libian dinars per US dollar - 1.2604 (2007), 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005), 1.305 (2004), 1.2929 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 wrzesien 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state


head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 marzec 2006)


cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress


elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held marzec 2006 (next to be held NA)


election results: NA
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $36.37 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 5.246 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1.326 million bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Eksport - partnerzy Wlochy 36.7%, Niemcy 14.3%, Hiszpania 8.7%, US 6.1%, Francja 5.6%, Turcja 5.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.1%


industry: 81.7%


services: 16.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.4% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $15.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 1,233 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Import - partnerzy Wlochy 18.9%, Niemcy 7.9%, Chiny 7.5%, Tunezja 6.3%, Francja 5.8%, Turcja 5.2%, US 4.7%, South Korea 4.3%, UK 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 24 grudzien 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.82 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 20.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 4,700 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court
Sila robocza 1.82 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 17%


industry: 23%


services: 59% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 4,348 km


border countries: Algieria 982 km, Czad 1,055 km, Egipt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunezja 459 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 1.03%


permanent crops: 0.19%


other: 98.78% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood w the major cities
System prawny based on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision dla judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral General People's Congress (approximately 2,700 seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Zywotnosc total population: 76.88 years


male: 74.64 years


female: 79.23 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 82.6%


male: 92.4%


female: 72% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egipt and Tunezja
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north


exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Flota handlowa total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,200 GRT/85,931 DWT


by type: cargo 11, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwejt 1, Norwegia 1, Syria 1)


registered w other countries: 4 (Malta 3, Tunezja 1) (2007)
Wojsko Armed Peoples on Duty (APOD, Army), Libian Arab Navy, Libian Arab Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriya al-Arabia al-Libyya, LAAF) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.9% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 1 wrzesien (1969)
Narodowosc noun: Libian(s)


adjective: Libian
Naturalne zagrozenia hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days w spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 882 km; gas 3,425 km; oil 6,956 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy none
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow various Arab nationalist movements z almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libian exile movement exists, primarily based w London, but has little influence
Ludnosc 6,036,914


note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 7.4% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.262% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3 (2001)
Linie kolejowe 0 km


note: Libia has announced plans to build seven lines totaling 2,757 km of 1.435-m gauge track (2006)
Religie Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.062 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.964 male(s)/female


total population: 1.052 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational w 1996; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density reached 75 telephones per 100 persons w 2006


domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations


international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to Francja and Wlochy; microwave radio relay to Tunezja and Egipt; tropospheric scatter to Grecja; participant w Medarabtel (1999)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 483,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 3.928 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 12 (plus 1 repeater) (1999)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 30% (2004 est.)
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