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Kamerun (2008)

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Kamerun 2008 roku

 Kamerun
Podzial administracyjny 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 41.3% (male 3,763,332/female 3,695,053)


15-64 years: 55.5% (male 5,029,658/female 4,994,786)


65 years and over: 3.2% (male 266,616/female 310,937) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber
Lotniska 45 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 34


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 20


under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Terytorium total: 475,440 sq km


land: 469,440 sq km


water: 6,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than California
Tlo historyczne The former French Kamerun and part of British Kamerun merged w 1961 to form the present country. Kamerun has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite a slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly w the hands of President Paul BIYA.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 35.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.14 billion


expenditures: $3.3 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Yaounde


geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies z terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot w north
Linia brzegowa 402 km
Konstytucja 20 maj 1972 approved by referendum, adopted 2 czerwiec 1972; revised styczen 1996
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kamerun


conventional short form: Kamerun


local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Kamerun


local short form: Cameroun/Kamerun


former: French Kamerun, British Kamerun, Federal Republic of Kamerun, United Republic of Kamerun
Wspolczynnik zgonow 12.66 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.449 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Janet E. GARVEY


embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde


mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520


telephone: [237] 2220 15 00; Consular: [237] 2220 16 03


FAX: [237] 2220 16 00 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 2220 17 52


branch office(s): Douala
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA


chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790


FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Joint Border Commission z Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including czerwiec 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Kamerun z a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; implementation of the ICJ ruling on the Kamerun-Gwinea Równikowa-Nigeria maritime boundary w the Gulf of Gwinea is pending due to imprecisely defined coordinates and a sovereignty dispute between Gwinea Równikowa and Kamerun over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Kamerun have heeded the Lake Czad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Czad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $413.8 million w styczen 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Kamerun's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion (2005)
Ekonomia Because of its modest oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Kamerun has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies w sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate dla business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and Swiat Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency w agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In czerwiec 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing dla more reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. International oil and cocoa prices have a significant impact on the economy.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 3.435 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 4.09 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m


highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Mt. Kamerun)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Kamerun Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Kurs waluty Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 493.51 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 listopad 1982)


head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 11 pazdziernik 2004 (next to be held by pazdziernik 2011); prime minister appointed by the president


election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $3.705 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 107,400 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy Hiszpania 21.4%, Wlochy 15.4%, Francja 11.6%, South Korea 7.3%, Holandia 7.2%, US 5.7%, Belgia 4.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow z a yellow five-pointed star centered w the red band


note: uses the popular pan-African colors of Etiopia
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 44.3%


industry: 15.9%


services: 39.8% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 6 00 N, 12 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Kamerun, the highest mountain w Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.3%


highest 10%: 35.4% (2001)
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $3.632 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 63,710 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Import - partnerzy Francja 23.6%, Nigeria 13.2%, Chiny 7.2%, Belgia 6.1%, US 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 65.84 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 70.73 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 60.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, C, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 260 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
Sila robocza 6.68 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 70%


industry: 13%


services: 17% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 4,591 km


border countries: Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 797 km, Czad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Gwinea Równikowa 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.54%


permanent crops: 2.52%


other: 84.94% (2005)
Jezyki 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
System prawny based on French civil law system, z common law influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature


elections: last held 22 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RDCP 140, SDF 14, UDC 4, UNDP 4, MP 1, vacant 17; note - vacant seats will be determined w a yet to be scheduled by-election after the Supreme Court nullified results w five districts


note: the constitution calls dla an upper chamber dla the legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established
Zywotnosc total population: 52.86 years


male: 52.15 years


female: 53.59 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 67.9%


male: 77%


female: 59.8% (2001 est.)
Lokalizacja Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Gwinea Równikowa and Nigeria
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 38,613 GRT/68,820 DWT


by type: petroleum tanker 1


foreign-owned: 1 (Francja 1) (2007)
Wojsko Kamerun Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.3% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day (National Day), 20 maj (1972)
Narodowosc noun: Kamerunian(s)


adjective: Kamerunian
Naturalne zagrozenia volcanic activity z periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
Surowce naturalne petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 27 km; liquid petroleum gas 5 km; oil 1,110 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Kamerunian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Kamerun People's Democratic Movement or RDPC [Paul BIYA]; Movement dla the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement dla the Liberation and Development of Kamerun or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union dla Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Kamerun or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Southern Kamerun National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
Ludnosc 18,060,382


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 48% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.241% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 987 km


narrow gauge: 987 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religie indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.018 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.007 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.857 male(s)/female


total population: 1.007 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 20 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections z many parts of the country are unreliable; mobile-cellular usage, w part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has been increasing steadily and currently stands at 14 per 100 persons


domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter


international: country code - 237; landing point dla the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 100,300 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 2.253 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 1 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu diverse, z coastal plain w southwest, dissected plateau w center, mountains w west, plains w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.49 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 30% (2001 est.)
Drogi wodne navigation mainly on Benue River; limited during rainy season (2005)
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