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Cameroon (2007)

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Cameroon 2007 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.3% (male 3,763,332/female 3,695,053)

15-64 years: 55.5% (male 5,029,658/female 4,994,786)

65 years and over: 3.2% (male 266,616/female 310,937) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber
Airports 45 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 20

under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Area total: 475,440 sq km

land: 469,440 sq km

water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite a slow movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy headed by President Paul BIYA.
Birth rate 35.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.611 billion

expenditures: $2.609 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Yaounde

geographic coordinates: 3 52 N, 11 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Coastline 402 km
Constitution 20 May 1972 approved by referendum, adopted 2 June 1972; revised January 1996
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon

conventional short form: Cameroon

local long form: Republique du Cameroun/Republic of Cameroon

local short form: Cameroun/Cameroon

former: French Cameroon, British Cameroon, Federal Republic of Cameroon, United Republic of Cameroon
Death rate 12.66 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $3.688 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador R. Niels MARQUARDT

embassy: Avenue Rosa Parks, Yaounde

mailing address: P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520

telephone: [237] 2220 15 00; Consular: [237] 2220 16 03

FAX: [237] 2220 16 00 Ext. 4531; Consular FAX: [237] 2220 17 52

branch office(s): Douala
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA

chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790

FAX: [1] (202) 387-3826
Disputes - international Joint Border Commission with Nigeria reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; implementation of the ICJ ruling on the Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea is pending due to imprecisely defined coordinates and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Economic aid - recipient in January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; debt relief now totals $1.26 billion (2005)
Economy - overview Because of its modest oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency, privatization, and poverty reduction programs. International oil and cocoa prices have a significant impact on the economy.
Electricity - consumption 3.435 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 4.09 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Mt. Cameroon)
Environment - current issues waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

head of government: Prime Minister Ephraim INONI (since 8 December 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 October 2004 (next to be held by October 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $3.49 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners Spain 21.3%, Italy 15.4%, France 11.6%, South Korea 7.3%, Netherlands 7.2%, US 5.7%, Belgium 4.2% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 44.3%

industry: 15.7%

services: 40% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.9% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 N, 12 00 E
Geography - note sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan west Africa, is an active volcano
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3%

highest 10%: 35.4% (2001)
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $3.127 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports - partners France 23.6%, Nigeria 13.2%, China 7.3%, Belgium 6.1%, US 4.6% (2006)
Independence 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 4.2% (1999 est.)
Industries petroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 65.84 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.73 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 60.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.1% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 260 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and six substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
Labor force 6.542 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 70%

industry: 13%

services: 17% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,591 km

border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Land use arable land: 12.54%

permanent crops: 2.52%

other: 84.94% (2005)
Languages 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Legal system based on French civil law system, with common law influence; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature

elections: last held 22 July 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RDCP 140, SDF 14, UDC 4, UNDP 4, MP 1, vacant 17; note - vacant seats will be determined in a yet to be scheduled by-election after the Supreme Court nullified results in five districts

note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established
Life expectancy at birth total population: 52.86 years

male: 52.15 years

female: 53.59 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 67.9%

male: 77%

female: 59.8% (2001 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 38,613 GRT/68,820 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (France 1) (2007)
Military branches Cameroon Armed Forces: Army, Navy (includes naval infantry), Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Cameroun, AAC) (2006)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.3% (2006)
National holiday Republic Day (National Day), 20 May (1972)
Nationality noun: Cameroonian(s)

adjective: Cameroonian
Natural hazards volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
Natural resources petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 70 km; liquid petroleum gas 9 km; oil 1,107 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or RDPC [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MYC [Dieudonne TINA]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Political pressure groups and leaders Southern Cameroon National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]; Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]
Population 18,060,382

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 48% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.241% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (2001)
Railways total: 987 km

narrow gauge: 987 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.018 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.007 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.857 male(s)/female

total population: 1.007 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable; mobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has been increasing steadily and currently stands at 14 per 100 persons

domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 100,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.253 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Total fertility rate 4.49 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% (2001 est.)
Waterways navigation mainly on Benue River; limited during rainy season (2005)
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