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Cameroon (2001)

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Cameroon 2001 year

Administrative divisions 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est, Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.37% (male 3,385,898; female 3,310,504)

15-64 years:
54.28% (male 4,305,354; female 4,271,958)

65 years and over:
3.35% (male 244,419; female 285,087) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber
Airports 49 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
10 (2000 est.)
Area total:
475,440 sq km

469,440 sq km

6,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy.
Birth rate 36.12 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$2.1 billion

$2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est.)
Capital Yaounde
Climate varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north
Coastline 402 km
Constitution 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally adopted; revised January 1996
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Cameroon

conventional short form:

French Cameroon
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Death rate 11.99 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $10.9 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John M. YATES

Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde

mailing address:
P. O. Box 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520

[237] 23-40-14, 22-25-89, 23-05-12, 22-17-94

[237] 23-07-53

branch office(s):
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA

2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 265-8790

[1] (202) 387-3826
Disputes - international delimitation of international boundaries in the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in the past, is complete and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; tripartite maritime boundary and economic zone dispute with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria is currently before the ICJ
Economic aid - recipient on 23 January 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reduce Cameroon's debt of $1.3 billion by $900 million; total debt relief now amounts to $1.26 billion
Economy - overview Because of its oil resources and favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks. In June 2000, the government completed an IMF-sponsored, three-year structural adjustment program; however, the IMF is pressing for more reforms, including increased budget transparency and privatization. Higher oil prices in 2000 helped to offset the country's lower cocoa export revenues. A rebound in the cocoa market should increase growth to over 5% in 2001.
Electricity - consumption 3.227 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 3.47 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Fako 4,095 m
Environment - current issues water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified:
Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other African 13%, non-African less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996); note - from 1 January 1999, the XAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XAF per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

head of government:
Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19 September 1996)

Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the Prime Minister

president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively meaningless
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton
Exports - partners Italy 24%, France 18%, Netherlands 10% (2000 est.)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $26 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


36.5% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.4% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 N, 12 00 E
Geography - note sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa
Highways total:
34,300 km

4,288 km

30,012 km (1995)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machines and electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel, food
Imports - partners France 29%, Germany 7%, US 6%, Japan 6% (2000 est.)
Independence 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 4.2% (1999 est.)
Industries petroleum production and refining, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber
Infant mortality rate 69.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C, CCC, CEEAC, CEMAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 210 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges and 6 substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 70%, industry and commerce 13%, other 17%
Land boundaries total:
4,591 km

border countries:
Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

3% (1993 est.)
Languages 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Legal system based on French civil law system, with common law influence; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or shorten the term of the legislature)

last held 17 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RDCP 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note - results from 7 contested seats were cancelled by the Supreme Court, further elections on 3 August 1997 gave these seats to the RDPC

the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature, to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established
Life expectancy at birth total population:
54.59 years

53.76 years

55.44 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


52.1% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea:
50 NM
Military branches Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $118.6 million (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
3,762,369 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,903,149 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
174,308 (2001 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 20 May (1972)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous gases
Natural resources petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Political parties and leaders Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou NDAM NJOYA]; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDCP [Paul BIYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [leader NA]; Movement for the Youth of Cameroon or MLJC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Cameroonian Populations has two sections UPC-N [Ndeh NTUMAZAH] and UPC-K [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Political pressure groups and leaders Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary general]; Southern Cameroon National Council [Nfor Ngala NFOR, acting]
Population 15,803,220

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 48% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.41% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko
Radio broadcast stations AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 2.27 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,104 km

narrow gauge:
1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)
Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.86 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
available only to business and government

cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 75,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,200 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 1 (1998)
Terrain diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Total fertility rate 4.8 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% (1998 est.)
Waterways 2,090 km (of decreasing importance)
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