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Jamajka (2008)

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Jamajka 2008 roku

 Jamajka
Podzial administracyjny 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland


note: dla local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated w 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.5% (male 459,968/female 444,963)


15-64 years: 60.1% (male 822,486/female 848,310)


65 years and over: 7.4% (male 91,856/female 112,549) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk; crustaceans, mollusks
Lotniska 34 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 23


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Terytorium total: 10,991 sq km


land: 10,831 sq km


water: 160 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Connecticut
Tlo historyczne The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS w 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early w the 16th century. The native Taino Indiens, who had inhabited Jamajka dla centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island w 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery w 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamajka gradually obtained increasing independence from Britain, and w 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies w forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamajka gained full independence when it withdrew from the Federation w 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated z the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved w international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.44 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $3.441 billion


expenditures: $3.905 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Kingston


geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 76 48 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
Linia brzegowa 1,022 km
Konstytucja 6 sierpien 1962
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Jamajka
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.59 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.138 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Brenda LaGrange JOHNSON


embassy: 142 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6


mailing address: P.O. Box 541, Kingston 5


telephone: [1] (876) 702-6000


FAX: [1] (876) 702-6348
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon SHIRLEY


chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660


FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081


consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $35.74 million (2005)
Ekonomia The Jamajkan economy is heavily dependent on services, which now account dla more than 60% of Produkt krajowy brutto. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Remittances account dla nearly 20% of Produkt krajowy brutto and are equivalent to tourism revenues. Jamajka's economy, already saddled z a record of sluggish growth, will suffer an economic setback from damages caused by Hurricane Dean w sierpien 2007. The economy faces serious long-term problems: high but declining interest rates, increased foreign competition, exchange rate instability, a sizable merchandise trade deficit, large-scale unemployment and underemployment, and a debt-to-Produkt krajowy brutto ratio of 135%. Jamajka's onerous debt burden - the fourth highest per capita - is the result of government bailouts to ailing sectors of the economy, most notably the financial sector w the mid-to-late 1990s. Inflation also has declined, standing at about 7% at the end of 2007. High unemployment exacerbates the serious crime problem, including gang violence that is fueled by the drug trade. The GOLDING administration faces the difficult prospect of having to achieve fiscal discipline w order to maintain debt payments while simultaneously attacking a serious and growing crime problem that is hampering economic growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.131 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 6.985 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m


highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution w Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne black 91.2%, mixed 6.2%, other or unknown 2.6% (2001 census)
Kurs waluty Jamajkan dollars per US dollar - 69.034 (2007), 65.768 (2006), 62.51 (2005), 61.197 (2004), 57.741 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 luty 1952); represented by Governor General Kenneth O. HALL (since 15 luty 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Bruce GOLDING (since 11 wrzesien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister


elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition w the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $2.229 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1,531 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary alumina, bauxite, sugar, bananas, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel, mineral fuels
Eksport - partnerzy US 30.2%, Kanada 15.6%, Chiny 15.2%, UK 10.3%, Holandia 7%, Norwegia 4.6% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5%


industry: 34%


services: 61% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 18 15 N, 77 30 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamajka Channel, the main sea lanes dla the Panama Canal
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.1%


highest 10%: 35.8% (2004)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation and consumption of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Kolumbian narcotics traffickers favor Jamajka dla illicit financial transactions
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $5.709 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 71,420 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
Import - partnerzy US 39.3%, Trynidad i Tobago 13.6%, Wenezuela 9.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 6 sierpien 1962 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl tourism, bauxite/alumina, agro processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 15.73 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 16.4 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 15.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 7.1% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 250 sq km (2002)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Sila robocza 1.255 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 17%


industry: 19%


services: 64% (2006)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 15.83%


permanent crops: 10.01%


other: 74.16% (2005)
Jezyki English, English patois
System prawny based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated 8 seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 3 wrzesien 2007 (next to be held no later than pazdziernik 2012)


election results: percent of vote by party - JLP 50.1%, PNP 49.8%; seats by party - JLP 33, PNP 27
Zywotnosc total population: 73.12 years


male: 71.43 years


female: 74.9 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school


total population: 87.9%


male: 84.1%


female: 91.6% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Caribbean, island w the Caribbean Sea, south of Kuba
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 161,700 GRT/241,663 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 2, carrier 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3


foreign-owned: 12 (Dania 1, Niemcy 1, Grecja 8, Lotwa 2)


registered w other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2007)
Wojsko Jamajka Defense Force: Ground Forces, Coast Guard, Air Wing (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.6% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 6 sierpien (1962)
Narodowosc noun: Jamajkan(s)


adjective: Jamajkan
Naturalne zagrozenia hurricanes (especially lipiec to listopad)
Surowce naturalne bauxite, gypsum, limestone
Wspolczynnik migracji -6.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Jamajka Labor Party or JLP [Bruce GOLDING]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Ludnosc 2,780,132 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 14.8% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.777% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 10, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religie Protestant 62.5% (Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, Pentecostal 9.5%, Other Church of God 8.3%, Baptist 7.2%, New Testament Church of God 6.3%, Church of God w Jamajka 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.3%, Anglican 3.6%, other Christian 7.7%), Roman Catholic 2.6%, other or unspecified 14.2%, none 20.9%, (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.034 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.816 male(s)/female


total population: 0.978 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network


domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market dla telecommunications services resulted w rapid growth w mobile-cellular telephone usage; mobile-cellular teledensity now exceeds 100 per 100 persons; the number of fixed-lines w use has been declining


international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable w the Republika Dominikanska; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 319,000 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 2.804 million (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 7 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, z narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.36 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.2% (2007 est.)
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